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EC number: 203-458-1
CAS number: 107-06-2
For all applications, 1,2-dichloroethane absorption was faster through
rat epidermis than through human epidermis by factors varying from about
3 to 65 times, depending on the application.
The 1000 μg/mL occluded aqueous applications were made under conditions
which provided an infinite dose and avoided losses of 1,2-dichloroethane
by evaporation, thus enabling the direct comparison of
1,2-dichloroethane absorption through human and rat epidermis with the
absorption of other chemicals which have been assessed under similar
conditions (Dugard and Scott, 1984). The absorption of
1,2-dichloroethane through epidermal membranes from both species was
fastest during the very early period of exposure and had virtually
ceased by 1 hour after application. The reduction in absorption rate
occurred in both species when the amount of 1,2-dichloroethane absorbed
had reached 20-25 μg/cm² (i.e. approximately 10 % of the amount
applied), however, this value was reached earlier with rat epidermis
(0.25 hour) than with human epidermis (1 hour). The rate of
1,2-dichloroethane absorption from this application during the first
0.25 hour was only 3 times faster through rat epidermis (absorption rate
= 78.4 μg/cm²/hr permeability coefficient (Kp) = 0.078 cm/hr) than
through human epidermis (absorption rate = 25.8 μg/cm²/hr; Kp = 0.026
cm/hr). These rates were considered to indicate that, intrinsically, rat
and human epidermis have a similar permeability to 1,2-dichloroethane.
For all the neat unoccluded applications, except the 100 μL/cm²
application to human epidermis, the applied 1,2-dichloroethane had
evaporated from the skin surface before the time of the first sample
(0.25 hour after addition). The 100 μL/cm² application to human
epidermis was the only neat application to display an increased
1,2-dichloroethane absorption rate after 0.25 hour (106-205 μg/cm²/hr).
Although the applied 1,2-dichloroethane evaporated faster from the rat
epidermis, possibly due to the increased surface area afforded by the
fur "stubble", the 1,2-dichloroethane absorption rate during the first
0.25 hour increased almost proportionately with increasing amounts
applied. Absorption had virtually ceased by 0.25 hour for all
Absorption of neat 1,2-dichloroethane through human epidermis during the
first 0.25 hour of exposure was similar for all applications (82-106
μg/cm²/hr); thus, increasing the dose did not affect the absorption
rate. The rate of absorption at later times did not decrease as rapidly
as was seen with rat epidermis, but continued until approximately 1 hour
after application. The difference between absorption through rat and
human epidermis from the 5 μL/cm² application (4-1) was similar to the
difference measured from the aqueous application (3-1). For the other
neat applications the factors of difference were greater, varying
between 10 and 65 times, dependent on the volume applied.
Human and rat epidermal membranes were
prepared from whole skin samples and mounted in glass diffusion cells in
order to assess in vitro absorption rates of 1,2 dichloroethane. Neat
applications (5, 10, 25 and 100 µL/cm²) were left uncovered after
application, while the aqueous application (200 µL/cm²) was occluded
throughout the entire exposure period. The
data obtained from the applications of the aqueous 1,2 -dichloroethane
solution showed that intrinsic permeability of human and rat epidermis
to 1,2-dichloroethane was similar. From the neat material, 1,2
-dichloroethane absorption through human epidermis was consistently
over-estimated by rat epidermis. The absorption of 1,2-dichloroethane
from the neat material through rat epidermis was dependent upon the dose
applied. 1,2 -dichloroethane absorption through human epidermis was not
affected by varying the applied dose of neat material. The data obtained
in this study indicated that 1,2 -dichloroethane absorption through
human and rat epidermis was relatively fast.
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