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EC number: 203-458-1
CAS number: 107-06-2
The acute aquatic toxicity of
1,2-dichloroethane to fish has been investigated in several species of
fresh water fish. In the most reliable study the 96 -hour LC50 was 136
mg/L under flow-through conditions with Pimephales promelas with
Most of the remaining available studies are
static or semi-static studies and most of them are conducted without
analysis of the test concentrations. These tests are not considered for
the assessment due to the high volatility of 1,2-dichloroethane. In an
experiment with a static design, the material showed a minimum 96 h LC50
of 66 mg/L to Micropterus salmoides with analytical monitoring (but
significant, variable and too high vehicle concentrations); a maximum 96
h LC50 of 430 mg/l in a closed static test with Lepomis macrochirus
(Rinehart, W.E. 1971; Buccafusco et al. 1981).
Similar to the short term toxicity of fish,
the acute toxicity of 1,2-dichloroethane to aquatic invertebrates was
studied in several static and semistatic tests. Only such tests were
considered for the assessment that were performed in closed systems or
with analytical monitoring of the test substance concentration. The
lowest EC50 value for freshwater invertebrates of 160 mg/l was found in
a 48h test with Daphnia magna. In this test the substance concentration
was analytically monitored. Additional investigations with marine
invertebrates resulted in the lowest endponit for the species Artemia
salina. The 24h- EC50-value was 36 mg/l. Although these studies indicate
a higher risk they do not satisfy the guideline requirements, as the
amount of solvent (acetone) used in the test was variable in the
differtent concentrations and higher than the requested 0.1 mL/L.
Further on, different water salinities were used as further stressor.
The toxicity of 1,2-dichloroethane was
investigated in different algal species. The 96 h measured EC50 of 166
mg/l was obtained on Scenedesmus subspicatus, tested in a system
controlling volatile losses (capped vessels) and is considered to be the
lowest EC50-value for growth inhibition of algae. A corresponding NOEC
is not available but, based on this EC50, it is, however, unlikely that
the NOEC would be lower than NOEC obtained on Daphnia magna (28d NOEC of
11 mg/l for reproduction).
In addition, long-term tests are available
with fish and Daphnia. In an embryo-larval study with Pimephales
promelas a 32d-MATC related to wet weight of 29 - 59 mg/l based on
measured concentrations was found under flow-through conditions. Eggs
used were 24 hr old (Ahmad 1984). From the MATC a NOEC of 29 mg/l can be
derived. In a 28d-reproduction test conducted under semistatic closed
conditions with D. magna the LOECvalues determined for reproduction and
growth were 21 ± 1.7 and 72 ± 4.8mg/l and the NOECvalues determined for
reproduction and growth were 11 ± 0.8 and 42 ± 2.4 mg/l (based on
measured concentrations), respectively (Call et al. 1983).
The lowest effect value of 11 mg/l was found
in a long-term test with Daphnia magna. This value is used as basic
value for the derivation of the PNECaqua. As long-term tests with fish
and daphnids are available and as it can be assumed that algae are not
more sensitive to 1,2-DCE than daphnids an assessment factor of 10 is
applied resulting in a PNECaqua of 1.1 mg/l.
In the cell multiplication inhibition test
the effect of 1,2-dichloroethane on micro-organisms was studied. In the
bacterial strain Pseudomonas putida the toxicity threshold (TT) after
a16 hr exposure period has been determined to be 135 mg/l (Bringmann and
Kuehn 1976; 1977; 1980). In the course of a closed bottle test the
toxicity towards activated sludge from a local WWTP was studied. The
cumulative oxygen demand has been measured over 3 hr and the
concentration leading to a 50 % reduction in oxygen consumption was
determined. A 3 hr IC50 of 35.5 mg/l was derived from this investigation
indicating slight and transient toxicity on activated sludge (Tang et
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