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EC number: 201-557-4
CAS number: 84-74-2
at production and processing
environmental exposure assessment of DBP will be based on the expected
releases of the
during the following life cycle stages:
Distribution (e.g. road transport)
Processing in polymers
Formulation in adhesives
Processing/use of adhesives
Formulation in printing inks
Processing/use of printing inks
Processing of glass fibres
Processing of grouting agents
Exterior use of DBP containing products
Incineration and disposal of DBP containing products.
most of these life cycle stages local Predicted Environmental
Concentrations (PECs) were calculated
based on either generic (TGD defaults) or site-specific scenarios.
Results are presented
production and processing, respectively. Regional PECS
are calculated to be 0.4 μg/l for water, 89 μg/kg for sediment, 0.006
mg/kg for soil.
addition to these estimated PECs also a number of EU monitoring data are
available for DBP in various environmental compartments (mainly water
PECs in the various environmental compartments at production
PECeffluent, STP (mg/l)
PECsurface, water (μg/l)
PEC oral, fish (μg/kg)
PEC oral, worm (mg/kg)
Type of application
Plasticizer in PVC
PEC effluent STP(mg/l)
PEC air (µg/m3)
PEC sediment (mg/kg)
PEC soil (mg/kg)
PEC oral, fish (mg/kg)
PEC oral, worm(mg/kg)
European Union Risk Assessment Report
dibutyl phthalate, Volume 29, pp. 7 -8 (2003)
Editors: B. G. Hansen, S.J. Munn, R.
A/Ianou, F. Berthault, J. de Bruin, M. Luotamo, C. Musset, S. Pakalin,
G. Pellegrini, S. Scheen S. Vegro.
Office for Official Publications of the
European Communities, ISBN 92—894—1276—3
Table 3.4 present the local PEC/PNEC ratios for, respectively,
the production and processing
stages of DBP. Details will be discussed in Sections 3.3.2 through 3.3.4.
PEC/PNEC for Scenario
Plasticizer softener in PVC
Aquatic compartment (incl. sediment)
PNECmicroorganisms for DBP was set at 220 μg/l. For the risk
characterisation this value is compared
with the PEC(STO) for the various exposure scenarios. For production and
processing all PEC/PNEC
ratios were found to be below 1 (conclusion (ii)).
PNEC for surface water was set at 10 μg/l. For the risk characterisation
this value is compared
with the PEC in surface water for the various exposure scenarios. For
production and processing
all aquatic PEC/PNEC ratios were found to be below 1 (conclusion (ii)).
It should be noted
that for scenario IIIe grouting agent the PEC/PNEC based on the maximum
(rather than 90
percentile) estimated PEC would amount to 1.5. The current scenario IIIe
is based on a Norwegian
case and extrapolation to other EU situations is difficult. The general
is that environmental releases of DBP during grouting activities may
reach high levels in
surface water. Therefore the environmental impact of these kinds of
operations should be carefully
assessed/monitored. Apart from a few rather old monotoring data (1984)
the local and regional
measured surface water concentrations were found to be below the PNEC
(conclusion (ii)). The
same is true for the calculated regional water concentration.
PNEC for sediment is 1.2 mg/kg wwt. As both the PNEC and the PEC were
calculated with the
equilibrium partitioning method from the water data, the same
conclusions as for water can be
drawn. In addition, most of the available monitoring data are lower than
the PNEC for sediment-dwelling
organisms. Only the upper limit of the Furtmann data (1993)* for the
is higher than the PNEC (PEC/PNEC = 3). Recent marine sediment data
(1997) in Denmark
indicated that levels (maximum 2.4 mg/kg dwt) very close to the PNEC
(fresh water based)
can be found. Additional monitoring in marine sediments and
identification of emission sources
could be relevant. The PEC/PNEC ratio based on a calculated regional PEC
for the terrestrial compartment is 2 mg/kg dw. For the risk
characterisation this value is
compared with the PEC in soil for the various exposure scenarios. For
production and processing
all PEC/PNEC ratios were found to be below 1 (conclusion (ii)). Measured
calculated regional PEC were also found to be below the PNEC(conclusion
provisional PNEC for the atmospheric compartment is 0.01 μg/m3. A
comparison of this PNEC
with the calculated and measured local (production and
formulation/processing) and regional
PECs, shows that all PEC/PNEC ratios are above 1. A chronic fumigation
to be conducted(conclusion (i)).
oral is 104 mg/kg. For the risk characterisation this value is compared
with the PECs in
fish and worm for the various exposure scenarios. All PEC/PNEC ratios
were found to be far below
1(conclusion (ii)). It should be noted that with the application
of a higher BCF-value
tests with 14C-labelled DBP, the risks for secondary poisoning would
still be low.
is need for further information and/or testing.
conclusion is reached because:
is a need for better information to adequately characterise the risks to
plants exposed via
the atmosphere (the airborne toxicity to plants).
information requirement is a long-term plant toxicity test.
is at present no need for further information or testing or risk
beyond those which are being applied already.
conclusion applies to effects on the aquatic compartment (including
sediment), soil and secondary
For references, see the comprehensive Final Risk Assessment Report that
can be obtained from the European Chemicals Bureau: http://ecb.jrc.it
Union Risk Assessment Report dibutyl phthalate, Volume 29, ppp. 9 -11,
G. Hansen, S.J. Munn, R. A/Ianou, F. Berthault, J. de Bruin, M. Luotamo,
C. Musset, S. Pakalin, G. Pellegrini, S. Scheen S. Vegro.
Official Publications of the European Communities, ISBN 92—894—1276—3
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