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EC number: 201-557-4
CAS number: 84-74-2
The study (Hüls 1993) showed 94% of DIBP biodegradation within 28 days.
No biodegradation of residual concentration (20 -100 ng/L)
The study showed ca. 95% biodegradation within 6 days, but another study
with a low concentration of DIBP showed no biodegradation within 17 days
The study (Hüls 1988) showed 79% of DIBP biodegradation within 28 days.
same effect (100% biodegradation) shown for polluted (unspecified)
seawater; only 15% biodegradation shown for very clean oceanic water
within 1 week, 35% after 2 weeks
The study (Hattori et al. 1975) showed complete biodegradation of DIBP
in municipal river water within 6 days.
Freshwater hydrosoil degraded both 14C-DBP and 14C-DEHP (Tables l
, 2, 3). Since autoclavekilled or NaN3 controls did not significantly
degrade either ester, we attributed the degradation
of the two phalates to the enzymic action of microorganisms indigenous
to freshwater hydrosoil.
We found marked
differences between the
conditions and rates of biodegradation of the two
percent of the radio-labelled
DBP in hydrosoil (Table 2) was degraded aerobically
to mono-n-butylphthalate within 24 h and nearly
98 % (Table l) of all radioactivity disappeared
after 5 days. Under the same conditions, nearly
14 days were required for 53 % of the
DEHPlabelled material to disappear (Table 2).
Anaerobiosis slowed biodegradation of both
esters. Although nearly 98
% of the radio-labelled
DBP disappeared during 30
days of incubation in the
of anaerobiosis was evident. Nearly 70% of the DBP radioactivity
remained after 5 days of incubation under anaerobic conditions, whereas only 3
% of the extractable labelled DBP and degradation
products remained after 5 days of aerobic incubation.
reach the aerobic level
until the 30
Ester hydrolysis required twice as much time in anaerobic as in aerobic hydrosoil, and decarboxylation
time was about 6
times longer under
Identification of degradation products
In TLC-autoradiography analyses of the 14C
DBP and 14C-DEHP hydrosoil extracts we repeatedly found radioactivity
in DBP extracts at Rf 0.82, 0.33, 0.25, 0.15, 0.09, and 0.00 (Table 2).
The spots at Rf 0.82, 0.33, and 0.09 (Table 4),
when cochromatographed with nonradio-labelled
authentic standards, were similar to the spots of
din-butyl phthalate, n-butyl phthalate, and phthalic
acid, respectively. The spots at R1 0.25, 0.15, and 0.00 did
not correspond to known degradation product (Table 4).
Quantitation of the radioactivity at each Rf value by liquid
indicated that the major degradation product of the 1 -day
sample was the monoester (46.3%
). Small amounts of compounds more polar than
the monoester (6% of the total recovered radioactivity) were at Rf 0.25,
0.09, and 0.00. Rf 0.09 corresponded to phthalic acid; Rf 0.25 and 0.00
were unidentified compounds.
recovery of radioactive
that samples incubated for 1 day contained 95
% of the total radioactivity found in the control. This recovery decreased in the 5
-, 7 -. 14 - , and
30 -day samples. In comparison with
the control, only 2.9
- 7.9 % of the radioactivity introduced into these samples
was recovered (Table 2). Qualitative analyses of these extracts
by TLC-autoradiography revealed the parent
diester, the monoester, phthalic acid and a trace amount of an unknown
or unknowns at the origin in an approximate ratio of 76:18:3:1 % (Table
The slower rate of PAE degradation under
under aerobic conditions
is clearly reflected in the type and quantities
of the radioactive
incubaion intervals (Table
1,2). At least four compounds
were detected in anaerobic DBP
samples: the monoester, phthalic acid
and two unknowns at Rf 0.25 and 0.00. The compound
or compounds at Rf 0.15 was not seen in any of the autoradiograms taken
from anaerobic extracts. Although
was the major degradation
product in either
the aerobic or anaerobic samples after
1 day of incubation,
the degradation rate was more than 1.5 times faster under aerobic
(32 % vs. 50 %). Qualitative comparison
of aerobic with anaerobic
degradation after the first 24h incubation periodis at
because of the rapid loss of radioactivity from the samples.
We did, however,
observe an increase
in the monoester
after long incubation
and an apparent lack
of the more polar
degradation products in
anaerobic samples (Table
phthalic acid esters di-2 -ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl
phthalate (DBP) which are used as plasticizers and recovered in routine
chemical analysis of freshwater fish, were incorporated into
freshwater hydrosoil in the laboratory.
BOD5:COD ratio of 0.63 (obtained with a
DBP may be regarded as readily biodegradable under aerobic conditions like water.
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