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EC number: 201-557-4
CAS number: 84-74-2
The study measured EC50 and NOEC levels for green algae.
of DBP to algae
1.2 (72 hEC50)
3.5 (48 hEC50; biomass)
Kühn and Pattard (1990)
9.0 (48 hEC50; growth rate)
Wilson et al.(1978)
The test with the marine dinoflagellate
Gymnodium breve showed a very poor reproducibility. In the first assay
an EC50 of 0.0034 mg/l was established, whereas in the second, a value
of 0.2 mg/l was found. It is doubtful whether such a large difference
can be attributed to biological variation. This is supported by the fact
that the variation between the replicates was much smaller in the tests
with other phthalate esters in the same study. The BUA report (BUA,
1987) revealed some more, technical shortcomings of the Gymnodium test.
For these reasons the test results will not be used for the derivation
of the PNEC for the aquatic compartment. The NOEC values for both
freshwater and marine algae are presented in following Table:
DBP for algae
Melinand Egnéus (1983)
It is necessary to discuss the 14-day LOEC
of 0.002 mg/l for the blue-green algae Synecchococcus lividus in more
detail. At DBP concentrations of 0.002 mg/l and higher, the number of
monodispersed (i.e. non-aggregated) cells of the blue-green algae was
found to be significantly decreased. This effect, however, can be fully
attributed to a DBP induced shift from non- aggregated towards
aggregated cells. At each concentration of DBP tested namely, the
percentage of aggregated S. lividus was found to be increased: at 0.002
mg/l about 95% of the algae were in aggregated form as opposed to 22% in
the control group. In addition, when counting the total number of S.
lividus, i.e. both aggregated and non-aggregated organisms, a
significant increase was found at all test concentrations. In conclusion
it can be said that DBP caused a decrease only in the number of
non-aggregated S. lividus. Nevertheless, very low concentrations of DBP
seem to affect the growth behaviour of these blue-green algae. At
present, however, the ecological significance of this effect is
unknown and therefore the value will not be used for the PNEC derivation.
The information on the pollutant effect of the substance was related to
the nominal concentration and only in a few, clearly indicated cases, to
the chemical quantification of the stock solution. The dilution quotient
for the test preparations in all test series was 1 : 2.
Table 3 gives the results for the 43 substances which were tested
according to a modified procedure of the Standard, i.e. in 250 ml
bottles with groundglass stoppers and with an overall test time of 48 h.
The following data were given for each substance:
EbC10 (0-48 h)
EbC50 (0-48 h)
EµC10 (0 -48 h)
EµC50 (0-48 h)
tested concentration range.
In the group of esters, three of the tested phthalates stood out. The
longer the alkyl chains, the more toxic were the compounds. The
substance concentrations for the 48 h-EbC10 in the case of dibutyl ester
phthalate (1.4mg/l) and diallyl ester phthalate (l.9mg/l) were 6-5 times
lower than for diethyl ester phthalate (11 mg/l).
The study measured EC10 and EC50 values for green algae for 78
substances. Only those concerning DBP are documented here.
Exposure of Selenastrum to DBP in concentrations between 10 ^-5 and
10^-4 M lead to an inhibition of growth (Fig. 1). Concentrations higher
than 10^-4 killed the algae. The growth during the first 24 h in 10^-4 M
treated algae is due to cell division because of DBP-stress. Similar
results were obtained with Chlorella emersonii. To investigate whether
the effect of DBP on growth was due to an effect on photosynthesis, we
studied the effect of DBP on CO2-dependent oxygen evolution from
Chlorella (Fig. 2). The algae were incubated with DBP for 40 min before
irradiation. The number of algae /ml was considerably higher in the
photosynthesis experiments than in the growth experiments. DBP affected
photosynthesis at concentrations higher than 10^-5 M, but the inhibition
was weak, and at the highest concentration investigated oxygen evolution
was only inhibited to about 50%.
This is part of a srudy conducted on algae, barley and spinat. Only the
effects on algae are documented here. Those on barley and spinach can be
found under section 6.3.3
Measured effect concentrations [mg/l]:EC50 (72h): 1.72 (Scenedesmus subspicatus)EC50 (48h): 3.50 (biomass) - 9.0 (growth rate) (Scenedesmus subspicatus)EC50 (96h): 30.2 (Scenedesmus. obliquus)Lowest observed NOEC: 0.2 (8d, Dunaliella parva) 0.8 (10d, Scenedesmus subspicatus)
Freshwater algae Scenedesmus obliquus
treated with DBP showed an EC50 (96h) of 30.2 mg/L. Testing on natural
algae showed the inhibition percentage of DBP was lower with same DBP
concentrations and exposure time. This suggests that different algal
species had varying reactions to DBP. For the chemical safety assessment
the most sensitive endpoint (Scenedesmus subspicatus) was chosen.
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