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EC number: 284-892-9
CAS number: 84989-04-8
The fraction of tar acid rich in 3- and 4-methylphenol, recovered by distillation of low-temperature coal tar crude tar acids.
Reproductive toxicity of cresols was examined in three independent
two-generation toxicity studies according to "TSCA Health Effects Test
Guideline for specific organ/tissue toxicity - Reproduction/Fertility
effects" (EPA, 1983, Union Carbide for CMA 1988 and 1989).
Sprague-Dawley rats were given daily 0, 30, 175, or 450 mg/kg bw/day o-,
m- or p-cresol in corn oil continuously by gavage for two generations.
General toxicity including increased mortality at 450 mg/kg bw/d and in
clinical signs of toxicity including hypoactivity, ataxia, twitches,
tremors, prostration, gasping, rapid respiration and perioral wetness
were observed at >= 175 mg/kg bw/d (NOAEL general toxicity: 30 mg/kg
bw/day). No reproductive parameters were affected by treatment in either
of the two generations (NOAEL fertility: 450 mg/kg bw/day). The NOAEL
for the offspring is 175 mg/kg bw/day based on reduced body weights (F1,
F2), pup body weight gain (F2), lactational index (F2) and pup mortality
(F2) at the highest dose.
Additionally, testing for reproductive toxicity of o-cresol in
mice using the NTP continuous breeding protocol (0, 0.05 - 0.5 %,
approximately 66 - 660 mg/kg bw/d in the diet) resulted in a NOAEL for
reproduction as well as for general toxicity of 0.2 % (ca. 263 mg/kg
bw/d US Department of Health and Human Services 1992).
Developmental toxicity: NOAEL rat 175 mg/kg bw/day (o- and p-cresol)
To determine developmental toxicity according to "TSCA Health
Effect Guidelines for Specific Organ/Tissue Toxicity - Developmental
Toxicity" (EPA 1984, 1987, CMA 1988) o-, m- or p-cresol were
administered by gavage to timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats during
organogenesis (gestation day 6-15; 0.0, 30.0, 175.0, 450.0 mg/kg bw/d)
in three independent studies. Gavage resulted in significant maternal
toxicity at 450 mg/kg bw/day including treatment related clinical signs
(hypoactivity, ataxia, tremor, twitches, prone positioning, audible
respiration, perioral wetness), mortality of ≤
4 dams (dependent on the tested cresol), statistically
significant reduction in body weights and body weight gain leading to a
NOAEL for maternal toxicity of 175 mg/kg bw/day for all components of
the mixed cresols. Slight fetotoxicity was observed only at 450 mg/kg
bw/day for o-cresol as one visceral variation (dilateted lateral
ventricles of the brain with no tissue compression) and for p-cresol as
reduced ossification in three skeletal districts in addition with
reduced fetal body weight. m-Cresol did not induce fetotoxicity or
malformations at any dose level tested. Thus the NOAEL for developmental
toxicity for cresols was determined to be 175 mg/kg bw/day.
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