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EC number: 215-252-9
CAS number: 1315-01-1
A basic toxicokinetics assessment of Tin disulfide was based on physicochemical and toxicological data and literature of tin disulfide, as well as on read across data from Tin sulfide. From these data, absorption was assessed to be very low, and the oral route is considered as most appropriate route for testing systemic toxicity. It is known that 95-99% of inorganic tin compounds are excreted via the faeces. Distribution, metabolism and elimination were also shortly discussed, but not elaborated much into detail based on the limited absorption.
of Tin disulfide was assessed as follows based on
disulfide is an ochre coloured odourless powder, with low molecular
weight (182.84 g/mol), low water solubility (0.67 µg/L)and small
particle size (d50: 1,58 µm). Based upon the physical form and low water
solubility, but mainly on the absence of toxicity in acute and repeated
dose oral toxicity studies, oral absorption of Tin disulfide is assumed
to be very low. Looking at the literature on absorption of inorganic tin
(and salts) confirms that inorganic tin is hardly absorbed after oral
ingestion, possibly as a result of low solubility. In humans and
laboratory species,more than 95-99% ofan ingested dose of inorganic tin
is recovered in the faeces.
on the powder characteristics (respirable and inhalable particles), tin
disulfide may enter the lung alveoli, but as it is not water soluble
it is not considered to stay in the alveolar mucus. Acute inhalation
toxicity testing showed somelaboured respiration & respiratory rate
increaseon the day of exposure, however no other relevant effects of
systemic toxicity were observed. Inhalation absorption is therefore
considered to be of low relevance. There is further no information from
literature on inhalation absorption of inorganic tin (salts).
data on surface tension (72.8 mN/m at 25°C) and absence of skin
irritation, skin sensitization and dermal toxicity indicate that dermal
absorption is not considered to be relevant. There is further no
information from literature on dermal absorption of inorganic tin
the assessment of distribution, metabolism and excretion of tin
disulfide, read across from ‘tin sulfide’ was used for the repeated dose
toxicity data based on structural and physicochemical but also
upon the toxiclow water solubility, but mainly based on the absence of
target organs after oral application, distribution was considered
minimal. Data from literature indicate that inorganic tin may distribute
to various organs, however this is not considered to be relevant if
there is no absorption.
is no direct indication of bioaccumulation potential. Literature
describes that inorganic tinmay accumulate in the bone and to a lesser
extent in the liver, lung, tongue, lymph nodes and kidney, however only
at very low percentages once systemically available.Taking into account
that absorption for tin (di)sulfide is negligible, accumulation is not
the assumptions above, excretion via the urine or other body fluids
is considered to be minimal. Literature data on inorganic tin (salts)
confirm that orally ingested tin is excreted mainly in the faeces(about
95-99% of ingested dose in animal studies), with some additional slow
elimination of the absorbed fraction in the urine.
assessment based on literature of tin salts:
the general population, the major source of tin is the diet. By
comparison, drinking water and inhaled air contribute insignificant
amounts. From data on mean tin intake from food for the populations of
seven countries (Australia, France, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, the
United Kingdom, and the USA), JECFA (2001) concluded that tin intakes
ranged from < 1 up to 15 mg/person per day. Certain individuals who
routinely consume canned fruits, vegetables, and juices from unlacquered
cans could ingest 50-60 mg of tin daily (Johnson & Greger, 1982;
Sherlock & Smart, 1984; JECFA, 2001). Those who consume about four
servings of food stored in open unlacquered cans, on a daily basis,
might consume in the region of 200 mg of tin per day (Greger & Baier,
1981; JECFA, 2001). In humans and laboratory mammals, absorption of
inorganic tin from the gastrointestinal tract is low (generally less
than 5 %), in particular for practically water insoluble compounds such
as tin(ll) sulfide, but is influenced by dose, anion (compound
solubility), and the presence of other substances. Unabsorbed ingested
tin is mostly (95-99%) excreted in the faeces within 48 h. Absorbed tin
distributes mainly to the bone, but also to the lungs, liver, and
kidneys. Limited evidence suggests that inorganic tin does not readily
cross the blood-brain barrier. Absorbed tin is mainly excreted in the
urine, with some additional biliary excretion occurring. In mice, the
biological half-life of absorbed inorganic tin was approximately 30
days. There is little or no evidence that practically water insoluble
tin compounds pose any significant health risk at the exposure levels
found in the work environment (European Commission, 2003).
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