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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Justification for type of information:
For tin disulfide an algal study is available. This study demonstrated that the tin sulfide has no toxic effects at the limit of water solubility, i.e., at 0.67 µg/L. The other aquatic endpoints were covered using data from tin sulfide which has an almost identical water solubility, i.e., 0.6 µg/L. The algal study was used as bridging study since the WHO concluded in their report that alge are the most sensitive group. Furthermore, the WHO concluded that Sn II is more toxic than Sn IV. Hence, read across from tin sulfide (Sn II) to tin disulfide (Sn IV) was considered justified.
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
The test was performed in China
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EL50
Effect conc.:
> 265 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: Immobilization
Remarks on result:
other:
Remarks:
Based the analysis of non-filtered samples
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: none
- Mortality of control: none
- Other adverse effects control: none
- Abnormal responses: none
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values:
Tin sulfide is almost insoluble in water (water solubility 0.6 µg/L). The LOD in the present study was 1 µg/L and hence the concentration in the medium filtered for analysis was < LOD. In the medium used for exposure of the daphnids, i.e., prior filtration, a concentration of 265 µg/L was measured. This indicates that some particulate matter must have been present in the medium used for the exposure of the daphnids, This concentration was stable throughout the exposure. Since no adverse effects in the exposed daphnids, it can be concluded that the particulate material ad no adverse effects on teh daphnids.
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No adverse effects were observed when the daphnids were exposed to medium which contained some undissolved material.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
- Results with reference substance valid? Yes
- Relevant effect levels:
Acute Immobilisation of Potassium Dichromate on Daphnia magna
Nominal Con. (mg/L) Initial Number of Daphnids Number of Immobilised Daphnids
6 h 12 h 18 h 24 h
0 5 0 0 0 0
5 0 0 0 0
5 0 0 0 0
5 0 0 0 0
0.32 5 0 0 0 0
5 0 0 0 0
5 0 0 0 0
5 0 0 0 0
0.56 5 0 0 0 0
5 0 0 0 0
5 0 0 0 0
5 0 0 0 0
1.0 5 0 0 0 1
5 0 0 1 2
5 0 0 1 2
5 0 0 2 2
1.8 5 3 3 4 5
5 2 2 4 5
5 4 4 5 5
5 5 5 5 5
3.2 5 5 5 5 5
5 5 5 5 5
5 5 5 5 5
5 5 5 5 5

- ECx:
EC50 of the reference test at differnt timepoints
12 h 18 h 24 h

EC50 (mg/L) 1.60 1.27 1.09
95% confidence limit (mg/L):1.51~1.68 1.19~1.34 1.03~1.16

Reported statistics and error estimates:
not relevant since no adverse effects observed.

Acute Immobilisation of Test Substance on Daphnia magna during the Limit Test

Nominal Con.

(mg/L)

 

Initial Number of Daphnids

24 h

48 h

Number of Immobilised Daphnids

ImmobilisationRate (%)

Number of Immobilised Daphnids

Immobilisation Rate (%)

Blank control

 

5

0

0

0

0

5

0

0

5

0

0

5

0

0

100(WAFs)

 

5

0

0

0

0

5

0

0

5

0

0

5

0

0

EC50(mg/L, based on the nominal concentration)

>100WAFs

>100WAFs

 

Visual Observations during the Limit Test

Nominal Concentration (mg/L)

Visual Observations

24 h

48 h

Blank control

5 NB

5 NB

5 NB

5 NB

5 NB

5 NB

5 NB

5 NB

100 (WAFs)

5 NB

5 NB

5 NB

5 NB

5 NB

5 NB

5 NB

5 NB

NB: Normal behaviours

Analysis Results of the Test Solution in the Limit Test

Nominal Concentration

(mg/L)

Measured Concentration

(μg/L)

Measured Concentration/0h measured Concentration

0 h

24 h

48 h

Mean

100 (WAFs)

272

259

263

265

97.4%

 


The results are considered relevant for tin disulfide since both substances have the same metal moiety and have similar physico-chemical properties, e.g., they are almost insoluble in water. Further evidence is provided in the read across justification.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Tin disulfide has no acute toxicity to daphnids under the tested conditions.
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity of tin sulfide to Daphnia magna was determined according to OECD 202 (2004). In a range-finding test 5 daphnids per treatment (no replicates) were exposed to nominal concentrations of 1.0, 10.0 and 100 mg test substance/L WAFs. No immobilization was observed. In the limit test 4 replicates with 5 daphnids per replicate each were tested at 100 mg/L WAF. A blank control was set up in parallel. After 48 h-test period all daphnids in control group and treated group were alive and appeared normal . A reference test with K2Cr2O7 under same conditions resulted in a 24h-LC50 of 1.,27 mg/L. All validity criteria were fulfilled. Under valid static test conditions the 48 h -EL50 of tin sulfide to Daphnia magna is greater than the nominal tested concentration of 100 mg/L WAF and greater than the measured concentraion of 265 µg/L, which is greater than the water solubility of 0.6 µg/L. Therefore, it can be concluded that tin sulfide has no acute toxicity to Daphnioa magna.

The results are considered relevant for tin disulfide since both substances have the same metal moiety and have similar physico-chemical properties, e.g., they are almost insoluble in water. Further evidence is provided in the read across justification.

Description of key information

The test was perfomed on the read-across substance tin sulfide but is considered relevant for tin disulfide as well. Tin disulfide is not toxic to daphnids up to the limit of water solubility.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information