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Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Description of key information

Short-term toxicity to invertebrates:
EC50 (48h): > 48 µg/L for Daphnia magna
EC50 (48h): > 17 µg/L for Crassostrea virginica

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
48 µg/L
EC50/LC50 for marine water invertebrates:
17 µg/L

Additional information

Toxicity studies are waived because of high insolubility of anthraquinone in water.

There are two reliable acute toxicity studies available - one for freshwater invertebrates and one for marine invertebrates, where selection of the test concentrations was based on the limit of water solubility of Anthraquinone in water.

In acute toxicity study with Daphnia magna no immobilization or adverse effects were observed among daphnids at all treatment levels of Anthraquinone tested. Based on these data, it was established that under the conditions maintained during this study (e.g., water quality, solution temperature, solvent concentration, and mixing period), Anthraquinone is not acutely toxic to Daphnia magna at and below the material's limit of water solubility.

In marine water toxicity study with Eastern oyster, comparison of biological response data did not establish a concentration-effect relationship within the concentration range tested, shell deposition reduction ranging from 15 to 25 percent was observed. Shell deposition reduction among oysters exposed to the highest mean measured test concentration of 17 µg A.I./L was 15%. The 96 hour EC50 was therefore empirically estimated to be > 17 µg A.I./L, the highest concentration of Anthraquinone that could be solubilized in seawater under the conditions maintained during this study (e.g., water quality, solution temperature, solvent concentration, mixing period).