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EC number: 201-549-0
CAS number: 84-65-1
Clastogenic effect of Anthraquinone
against V79 cells was assessed in independent experiments with and
without metabolic activation at 3-h exposure. Because these tests gave
negative results, an additional experiment without metabolic activation
at 24-h exposure was carried out. Five concentrations of test article,
solvent control and positive control were evaluated in each experiment.
In both assays with and without
metabolic activation with 3-h exposure to Anthraquinone at concentration
range of 0.3125 – 20 µg/mL the concentrations of 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20
µg/mL were evaluated.
Other experiments without presence
of metabolic activation were performed with 24-h exposure to
Anthraquinone at concentrations of 0.3125, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20
The results of experiments for
induction of structural chromosomal aberrations by Anthraquinone in V79
Chinese hamster lung cells are summarized in tables in Final report.
No precipitate was observed
throughout the experiment and the pH of the treatment media was neutral.
The negative control cultures showed optimal growth.
The data showed no dose-related
increase in the percentages of aberrant metaphases and in the total
numbers of aberrations in the Chinese hamster lung (V79) cells in assays
either with or without S9.
In experiment without metabolic
activation exposure to 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 µg/mL of Anthraquinone
for 3-h resulted in relative cell growth (RCG) of 100, 98.5, 106.3,
88.7, 86.8 and 100.5%, respectively, RCG of 100, 101.2, 60.8, 74.6, 78.8
and 78.5% was determined in cultures treated with 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10,
20 µg/mL of Anthraquinone, respectively, in the presence of S9.
In the short/term treatment (3h),
the percentages of aberrant metaphases excluding gaps of Anthraquinone
treated groups were less than 3% without S9 and less than 2% with S9,
respectively. No evidenc of reduction of MI values was observed in both
tests with 3 h exposure to Anthraquinone in the absence as well as in
the presence of metabolic activation system compared to MI values of
Relative cell growth 100, 96.7,
108.4, 137.4, 107.9 and 89.7% at 24 h treatment with Anthraquinone at
concentrations of 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 µg/mL, respectively.
In the case of continuous treatment
(24h), the percentage of aberrant metaphases excluding gaps of
Anthraquinone treated groups was similar to that of the solvent control.
No mitotic inhibition by
Anthraquinone was observed up to its solubility limit t the
concentration of 20 µg/mL.
The percentage of aberrant
metaphases excluding gaps of solvent control treated group ranged 0 to
1%. Because significance of gaps Is not clearly understood, they are not
included in assessment of chromosome damage.
All solvent control cultures had
percentages of aberrant metaphases within the expected range.
The positive control substances,
cyclophosphamide (20 µg/mL] and mitomycin C (0.04, 0.4 µg/mL induced
statistically significant increases (p<0.001] in the incidence of
aberrant metaphases, indicating that the experimental system employed
was functioning correctly.
The present study was carried out to
investigate to clastogenic effect of Anthraquinone using cultured
Chinese hamster V 79 cells in vitro.
Chinese hamster lung V 79 cells were
exposed to the test substance with and without exogenous metabolic
activation. Experiments were conducted in duplicate culture. Cells were
incubated with Anthraquinone at concentration of 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20
µg/mL and harvested either after 24 hrs (all doses) ar incubated for 3
hrs and harvested after 21-hrs (all doses) recovery period. Cells
exposed to S9 mix were treated with Anthraquinone at concentration of
1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 µg/mL for 3 hrs and harvested after 21-hrs (all
doses) recovery period. The reference mutagens cyclophosphamide (+S9)
and mitomycin C (-S9) were used. Stained chromosome preparations were
examined for chromosomal aberrations (100 metaphases per treatment
Under both test condition - the absence
and presence of metabolic activation - Anthraquinone produced no
significant increases in cells with structural aberrations (% aberrant
metaphases) at any of the dose levels tested. The positive controls
showed marked increases in the number of cells with structural
chromosome aberrations. Under these test conditions Anthraquinone is not
clastogenic in vitro.
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