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EC number: 204-000-3
CAS number: 112-72-1
Short-term toxicity to fish: 96 h LC50: >1.0 mg/L (nominal
concentration) determined for the effects of the test substance on
mortality of Oncorhynchus mykiss (guideline OECD 203).
A reliable 96h LC50 value of >1 mg/l has been determined
for the effects of tetradecanol (CAS 112-72-1) on mortality of the
fish Oncorhynchus mykiss [Safepharm, 1996]. This study
represents the lowest reliable experimental value available for this
endpoint on tetradecanol.
Reliable short term toxicity to fish tests and estimates have
determined the LC50 to lie in the range of >0.19 - >1000
96-h LC50 Brachydanio rerio (new name: Danio rerio)
= >10000 mg/l (reliability 2) [Henkel KGaA, (1999)].
Additionally, supporting data have been read-across from the mixture,
Alcohols C14-C15 (CAS 75782-87-5):
96-h LC50 >500 mg/l (nominal concentration) (>LOS)
for effects on mortality of Salmo gairdneri (new name: Oncorhynchus
mykiss) [Shell, 1978].
96-h LL50 >0.7 mg/l (>LOS) for effects on mortality of Carassius
auratus [Shell International, 1973].
These studies support the view that C14 is non-toxic at the
limit of solubility.
Discussion of trends in the Category of C6-24 linear and
essentially-linear aliphatic alcohols:
The data summarised in the table below show that the toxicity of the
single carbon number chain length LCAAs increases from an LC50 of
97 mg/L for C6 to 1.0 mg/L for C12. At higher carbon number chain
lengths there is an absence of short-term toxicity (LC50 values
are reported as being greater than the highest test concentration or
higher than the water solubility of the test substance) and this is
explained by the water solubility of an LCAA limiting its
bioavailability, such that a toxic concentration for short-term
exposure is not achieved.
The results of a 7-day, semi-static toxicity test with 1-octanol
using Pimephales promelas larvae
aged 1, 4 and 7 days at the start of the study have also been
reported by (Pickering et al., 1996) but
are not included in the table. NOECs based on nominal concentrations
were 1.5-11.9 mg/L for survival. Measured concentrations in the test
were reduced to non-detectable levels in most test vessels in the
old media. The poor maintenance of exposure concentrations means
that the reported NOEC values are almost certainly underestimates of
the true toxicity of the substance. The results of this test are
also discussed later with respect to long-term toxicity.
The lowest reliable LC50 values
determined in tests with single carbon chain length LCAAs are shown
in the following table.
Table: Key fish short-term toxicity studies on single carbon
chain length linear LCAAs.
Water solubility (mg/L)
5900 at 20°C
US EPA 1975
96 h LC50
Veith, Call and Brooke, 1983a,b
1300 at 20°C
Broderius and Kahl, 1985
550 at 25°C
Veith, Call and Brooke, 1983a,b; University of Wisconsin-Superior., 1984; Broderius and Kahl, 1985
130 at 20 °C
OECD TG 236
120 h LC50
Wildlife International, 2015b
Veith, Call and Brooke, 1983a,b; Brooke et al., 1984
8.0 at 20°C
1.9 at 20°C
0.38 at 20°C
0.19 at 25°C
Salmo gairdneri i3
>1 (n) (>LoS)
0.013 at 25°C
>0.4 (n) (>LoS)
0.0011 at 25°C
approx. 0.001 (estimate)
1 >LoS: concentration/Loading rate greater than the limit of water
2 (n) based on nominal concentrations, (m) based on measured
3 Now known as Oncorhynchus mykiss.
The names used in the study reports are given here.
The data for multi-constituent substances of different carbon chain
length LCAAs (commercial products) are shown in the table below. The
results show that substances containing LCAAs with carbon numbers in
the ranges of C8-10 and C6-12 exert short-term toxic effects at
concentrations of between 0.7 and 10 mg/L. At these concentrations,
all the constituents are likely to have been fully dissolved.
In contrast, multi-constituent substances - Alcohols, C12-13;
Alcohols, C12-13-branched and linear and Alcohols, C12-15-branched
and linear - exhibited effects at loading rates where not all
constituents were fully dissolved. Under such circumstances the
presence of retained undissolved test material, such as occurred in
the Shell Toxicology Laboratory (1978a) test, opens up the
possibility for physical fouling of the test organism and this needs
to be kept in mind when interpreting the result. The
multi-constituent substances containing LCAAs with carbon chain
length C12 and above did not exhibit short-term toxicity effects at
loading rates where the solubility of the constituent LCAAs was
The data for nonanol, branched and linear, decanol branched and
linear, decanol branched and undecanol branched alcohols, have been
read-across from their linear alcohols counterparts (C9, C10 and
C11) since they are essentially linear alcohols.
Alcohols, C14-15 ecotoxicity assessment is based on weight of
evidence from two studies; Shell Internationale Chemie (1973) and
Shell Toxicology Lab (1978a). Both studies report the LC50 to
be above the limit of solubility. The Shell Internationale Chemie
(1973) study tested the toxicity of the substance via the WAF
preparation method (the preferred method of testing with poorly
soluble mixtures) however it does not report complete information on
the study methods and conditions. The Shell Toxicology Lab (1978a)
did not utilise WAF methods but it is reported more comprehensively.
The results for both single carbon number LCAAs and the
multi-constituent substances indicate that, for fish, there is a
short-term toxicity cut-off for LCAAs with carbon numbers >C14.
The lowest reliable LC50 values
determined in tests with multiconstituent carbon chain length LCAAs
are shown in the following table.
Table: Fish short-term toxicity studies on mixed carbon chain length
510 at a loading rate of 1000 mg/L (estimated)
2.4 at 25°C
Salmo gairdneri4 and Lepomis macrochirus
EG&G Bionomics, 1975
Alcohols, C9-11- branched and linear
Also valid for Alcohols, C9-11 CAS 66455-17-2
44 at a loading rate of 1000 mg/L. (estimated)
Shell Toxicology Laboratory, 1979
Scopthalmus maximus (marine species)
Huntingdon Life Sciences Ltd., 1991d
Nonanol, branched and linear
(r-a from C9)
Decanol, branched and linear
26.17 at 20°C
(r-a from C10)
Veith, Call and Brooke, 1983a,b; University of Wisconsin-Superior, 1984
Undecanol, branched and linear.
Reaction mass of 2-methyldecan-1-ol and 2-propyloctan-1-ol and 2-ethylnonan-1-ol and 2-butylheptan-1-ol
6.3 at 25°C
96 h LC50
(r-a from C11)
2.4 at 25oC
Shell Toxicology Laboratory, 1978a
S. maximus (marine species)
10 (n) (>LoS)
Huntingdon Life Sciences Ltd., 1991c
Alcohols, C12-13-branched and linear
2.9-3.1 at 20°C
OECD 203 WAF
15 (n) (>LoS)
Alcohols, C12-15-branched and linear
0.80 at 20°C
96 h LL50
100-300 (n) (>LoS)
Shell Global Solutions, 2000
Alcohols, C 12-16
57 (n) (>LoS)
Huntingdon Life Sciences 1996i
Alcohols, C 12-14
not possible to determine compositional type
approx. 4 predicted at 1000 mg/L loading rate
48 h LC50
>5000 (n) (>LoS)
0.7 at 20°C and 0.15 at a loading rate of 1000 mg/L. (estimated)
>500 (n) (>LoS)
Shell Toxicology Lab 1978b
Shell Internationale Chemie, 1973
Alcohols, C 16-18 and 18 Unsaturated
0.0404 predicted at 1000 mg/L loading rate
1 Compositional Types are described in section
1.4.7 of the category report.
2 WAF denotes test medium was a water-accommodated
3 >LoS: LC50 observed
was greater than the limit of solubility of at least some
constituents of the substance. (n) based on
nominal concentrations, (m) based on measured
4 Now known as Oncorhynchus
mykiss. The names used in the study reports are given here.
Broderius, S. and Kahl, M., 1985. Acute toxicity of organic chemical
mixtures to the fathead minnow. Aquatic Toxicology 6:307-322.
E.G.& G. Bionomics, 1975. Acute toxicity of two Conoco compounds to
bluegill (lepomis macrochirus) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri).
Bioassay report submitted to Conoco Chemicals, Ponca City, Oklahoma.
Henkel KGaA, 1999m. Biological research and Product
Safety/Ecology: Unpublished results; test substance registration No.
Henkel KGaA, 1999o. Biological Research and Product safety/Ecology:
unpublished results, test substance registration no. 6802.
Huntingdon Life Sciences Ltd. (HLS), 1991d. Report No. SLL
Huntingdon Life Sciences Ltd. (HLS), 1991c. Report No. SLL
Huntingdon Life Sciences Ltd. (HLS), 1996i. Report No. 96/KAS231/0417.
SafePharm Laboratories, 1996b. SafePharm Laboratories SPL Project
SafePharm Laboratories, 1996c. SafePharm Laboratories SPL Project
SafePharm Laboratories, 1996d. SafePharm Laboratories SPL Project
SafePharm Laboratories, 2000. SafePharm Laboratories SPL Project
Shell, 1978. The acute toxicity of Linevol 79 to the golden orfe (idus
idus melanotus), Shell Group Research Report, TLGR.0024.78.
Shell Global Solutions, 2000. Shell Global Solutions Report
Shell Internationale Chemie, 1973. Determination of acute toxicity to
fish of Shell chemicals. I. AMGR.0095.73. Shell Toxicology Laboratory,
Shell Toxicology Laboratory, 1978b. GRR-TLGR.0162.78.
Shell Toxicology Laboratory, 1979. GRR-TLGR.0166.78.
TNO Nutrition and Food Research Institute, 2000a. Semi-static acute
toxicity test with Compound 33A and the zebra fish Brachydanio rerio.
TNO report V98.1319. University of Wisconsin-Superior, 1984. Acute
Toxicities of Organic Chemicals to Fathead Minnows (Pimephales
promelas). Center for Lake Superior Environmental Studies, University
Veith, G.D., Call, D.J., and Brooke, L.T., 1983a. Estimating the acute
toxicity of narcotic chemicals to fathead minnows. In: Bishop, W.E.,
Cardwell, R.D., and Heidolph, B.B. (eds.). Aquatic Toxicology and
Hazard Assessment: Sixth Symposium. ASTM STP 802. American Society for
Testing and Materials, Philadelphia.
Veith, G.D., Call, D.J., and Brooke, L.T., 1983b. Structure-toxicity
relationships for the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas: Narcotic
industrial chemicals. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 40:743-748.
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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