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EC number: 204-000-3
CAS number: 112-72-1
Tetradecanol (C14, CAS 112-72-1) has a water solubility of 1.3 mg/l at
23˚C pH 5.5, and a log Kow of 5.5. It has no
hydrolysable structural features and would be expected to be stable in
water. It is rapidly biodegradable.
Tetradecanol is a member of a category of long chain aliphatic alcohols
(LCAAs) with a carbon chain length range of C6-C24. The Category is
limited to linear and essentially-linear aliphatic alcohols.
As carbon number increases, short- and long-term aquatic toxicity
generally increase (i.e. decreasing E(L)C50 and NOEC values
observed) up to a threshold carbon number, above which there are no
effects at the limit of solubility. For short term effects the threshold
is between C13 and C14; for chronic effects it is between C15 and C16.
The observed threshold in carbon number is associated with limitations
on the degree to which predictable effects are expressed at the limit of
solubility, which is low for the longer-chain alcohol structures in the
Evidence across the Category of C6-24 long-chain aliphatic alcohols
(LCAAs) supports the conclusion that a similar level of susceptibility
is exhibited for all three taxonomic groups in the short-term data set.
Alcohols in the Category have toxicity consistent with non-polar
narcosis effects, in line with the very many organic non-polar narcotic
organic substances that have been extensively studied and described in
literature by various authors. Therefore the LCAAs in this category
should be considered in the context of neutral organics.
Long-term toxicity testing across the category has been carried out with
fish and Daphnia, and there are measured long-term data with
invertebrates available for tetradecanol. However, significant
biodegradation losses of substance in the test system still occurred,
despite measures taken to prevent this. A full report detailing
properties and trends across the LCAAs category, as well as further
discussion on measures to prevent test substance losses is available:
ECOTOXICITY Alcohols C6-24 Category report.
Quantitative structure-activity relationships ((Q)SAR’s) for estimating
toxicity to fish and Daphnia have been developed. It is possible
to apply these relationships to predict short- and long-term toxicity
endpoints for other members of the Category. Further details are
described in the ECOTOXICITY Alcohols C6-24 Category report.
Reduced assessment factors have been used to derive PNECs:
Basis for setting of assessment factor
The purpose of assessment factors is to take a laboratory result and
estimate a PNEC that applies to the environment itself. In summary, and
as is well-known, the purpose of the factors is to account for
1. Intra-laboratory variability
2. Inter-laboratory variability
4. Sensitivity of the environmental ecosystem relative to the range
or organisms actually tested.
For one substance standing alone, the factor of 10 is considered in the
Guidance to apply to three long term NOECs or ECx values for
the aquatic compartment. Similarly an assessment factor of 50 is
specified when deriving a PNEC when two long-term NOECs or EC10s
for different taxonomic groups are available.
Why is the Guidance default of 10 a reasonable number for long-term
data? A reasoned discussion is set out in the table below, along with an
application of the same logic to tetradecanol.
Table 1 A basis of understanding assessment factors and application to
long-term studies with alcohols
General rationale when three trophic levels have been studied
Members of the C6-24 Alcohols Category
1. Intra-laboratory variability
For well-performed studies with good chemical analysis point 1 is negligible
2. Inter-laboratory variability
A factor of 2 to 5 would be realistic
For the long-chain alcohols, the inter-laboratory variation is much lower, because the substances are archetypal exemplars of non-polar narcotics.
When a full set of long-term NOECs or ECxvalues are available, the contributing factor associated with point 3 (duration) is relatively minor, and can be ignored.
This is definitely the case for the ecosystem, in which alcohols are ubiquitous, so duration is irrelevant.
4. Sensitivity of the environmental ecosystem
For point 4 (ecosystem sensitivity), a value of 2 to 5 is realistic
For non-polar narcotics, many species of organism have been studied, so the uncertainty regarding lab to field extrapolation should also be reduced. The ecosystem is adapted to alcohols.
The geometric mean of the range of the two contributing factors is 10. Whilst not set out in Guidance, such a breakdown is a reasonable basis of the factors and is consistent with such extrapolations in mammalian toxicology.
AF = 1*2*1*2.5 = 5 is implied
Although in the case of tetradecanol specifically, a full set of
long-term results are not available, the predictability of trends across
the category, the low acute-to-chronic ratio and the potential for
metabolism mean that the duration factor (point 3) does not need to be
On the basis of this logic, an assessment factor of 10 is very
conservative for deriving PNECs in the chemical safety assessment of
this substance. However, an assessment factor of 10 has been applied to
the lowest NOEC or ECx value to derive aquatic PNECs.
For further discussion please refer to the attached ECOTOXICITY Alcohols
C6-24 Category report.
Supporting data have been read-across from the mixture, Alcohols C14-C15
(CAS 75782-87-5) for fish and algae, to support the view that C14 is
non-toxic at the limit of solubility.
Justification for Read-across
1. HYPOTHESIS FOR THE CATEGORY APPROACH
The hypothesis is that the category members have similar structures and
short-term toxicity to fish and algae effects which vary in strength
across the category, forming a regular pattern (Scenario 4 in the RAAF).
The interpretation of the observed trends of variation of this property
across the category is discussed in the endpoint summary.
2. SOURCE AND TARGET CHEMICAL(S) (INCLUDING INFORMATION ON PURITY AND
Please refer to the test material identity information within each
endpoint study record and to the endpoint summary. The source chemicals
and the target chemical are linear aliphatic alcohols which are members
of the long chain linear aliphatic alcohol Category.
The long chain linear aliphatic alcohol Category has at its centre an
homologous series of increasing carbon chain length alcohols. The
category members are structurally very similar. They are all primary
aliphatic alcohols with no other functional groups. The category members
are linear or contain a single short-chain side-branch at the 2-position
in the alkyl chain, which does not significantly affect the properties
(‘essentially linear’). The category members have saturated alkyl chains
or contain a small proportion of naturally-occurring unsaturation(s)
which does not significantly affect the properties. The branched and
unsaturated structures are considered to have such similar properties
that their inclusion in the category is well justified.
Impurities: Linear and/or ‘essentially linear’ long chain aliphatic
alcohols of other chain lengths may be present. These are not expected
to contribute significantly to the properties in respect of this
endpoint due to predictable trends (see point 3).
There are no impurities present at above 1% which are not category
members or which would affect the properties of the substance.
3. CATEGORY JUSTIFICATION
The category members are structurally very similar (see point 2) and are
biochemically very similar. The metabolic synthesis and degradation
pathways are well established. This Category is associated with a
consistency and predictability in the physicochemical, environmental,
and toxicological property data across its members.
The context of trends observed in this property across the range of
chain lengths covered by this Category is described in the Endpoint
Summary and in the Category Report attached in Section 13.
In this registration, the information requirement is fulfilled by data
with the registration substance itself, with supporting read-across data
from one or more members of the category with similar or same chain
length, for which the comparability is strongest (in view of the similar
physico-chemical properties of the source and target substances as well
as similar position in terms of category trends).
4. DATA MATRIX
A data matrix for the C6-24 alcohols Category is attached in Section 13.
Tetradecanol has reliable short-term E(L)C50 values for fish,
invertebrates and algae of >1 mg/l, 3.2 mg/l and >10 mg/l, respectively.
It has a reliable EC10 of 2.9 mg/l in algae and 0.0063 mg/l
in Daphnia, as well as a NOEC of 0.0016 mg/l in Daphnia.
The substance is readily biodegradable and very rapidly biodegraded in
These data are consistent with the following classification under
Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 (as amended) (CLP):
Acute toxicity: Not classified.
Chronic toxicity: Category 1 An M-factor of 1 applies (chronic
toxicity NOEC value 0.001 < NOEC ≤ 0.01 mg/l, rapidly degradable
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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