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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to birds

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to birds: dietary toxicity test
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Studies conducted according to sound scientific principles, no GLP nor analytical monitoring.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
1975
Report Date:
1975

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 223 (Avian Acute Oral Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
not applicable
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Test material form:
liquid
Remarks:
clear
Dose method:
feed
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
yes
Details on preparation and analysis of diet:
DIET PREPARATION

- Description and nutrient analysis of basal diet provided in study report: yes

- Preparation of doses: The test substance and dieldrin (positive control) were dissolved in corn oil in concentrations such that the addition of two parts (by weight) of each solution to 98 parts of the standard game bird starter ration resulted in the logarithmic series of dosage levels defined in Table 2.

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
other: Anas platyrhynchos (duck) and Colinus virginianus (quail)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) and bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus)

- Source: Production flock, Truslow Farms Inc., Chestertown, Maryland

- Age at test initiation: 14 days, both species

- Disease free: yes

Study design

Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration (if not bolus):
5 d
Post exposure observation period:
3 days
No. of animals per sex per dose and/or stage:
5 pens per treatment, 5 birds per pen.
Control animals:
yes, plain diet
Nominal and measured doses / concentrations:
See Table 1.
Details on test conditions:
ACCLIMATION

- Acclimation period: the eggs were incubated in a Chick master (Model 52E) for 23 days (quails) and 25 days (ducks), upon hatching the chicks were placed in Beacon (Model B755) battery broodes until they were 14 days of age.

- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): temperature was the same (ca. 99.0 degF)

- Feeding: basal diet was Truslow Farms' game bird starter ration, available ad libitum

- Health (any disease or mortality observed): none reported

- Fasting period before study: none


FEED WITHHOLDING PERIOD BEFORE DOSING

- No. of days: none


PEN SIZE AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

- Caging: group


NO. OF BIRDS PER REPLICATE

- For negative control: 10

- For vehicle control: 10

- For treated: 10


NO. OF REPLICATES PER GROUP

- For negative control: 5

- For vehicle control: 1

- For treated: 1


TEST CONDITIONS (range, mean, SD as applicable)

- Temperature:

- Brooder temperature: ca. 99 degF

Examinations

Details on examinations and observations:
MORTALITY / CLINICAL SIGNS

- Time schedule for examinations: daily


BODY WEIGHT

- Time schedule for examinations: beginning and end of test.



FOOD CONSUMPTION (if feeding study)

- Time schedule for examinations: daily
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
dieldrin

Results and discussion

Effect levels
Duration (if not bolus):
5 d
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect level:
> 10 000 other: ppm
Conc. / dose based on:
other: nominal conc. of test material
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: bobwhite quail and mallard duck
Mortality and sub-lethal effects:
For details on cumulative mortality and sub-lethal effects see Tables 2 and 3.

MORTALITY: 20% bobwhite quail, 0% mallard duck


BODY WEIGHT

- Results: The bobwhite quail suffered a decrease in body weight gain, no statistical analysis provided. No effects were seen for in the duck test. See Tables 2 and 3.


FOOD CONSUMPTION

- Results: The bobwhite quail suffered a decrease in food consumption, no statistical analysis provided. No effects were seen for in the duck test. See Tables 2 and 3.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
BOBWHITE QUAIL:

- Results with reference substance valid? yes

- Relevant effect levels: LC50 = 31 ppm (95% confidence limits: 24-39 ppm)

- Other:


MALLARD DUCK:

- Results with reference substance valid? yes

- Relevant effect levels: LC50 = 97 ppm (95% confidence limits: 69-135 ppm).

- Other: There was a dose-related suppression in body weight gain and food consumption. At 68 ppm dosage level, only hyperexcitability was observed prior to death. The following symptoms of toxicity were observed at 100, 147, 215 and 316 ppm: lack of coordination, depression, loss of the righting relfex, rigidly extended legs and necks, and salivation.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Mortality was analysed statistically by the method of Litchifield J T and Wilcoxon F J (1949) Pharmacol. Exptl. Therap. 96: 99

Any other information on results incl. tables

Table 2. Mortality, average body weight (per pen) and total food consumption (during the 5 d exposure period) for the bobwhite quail.

 Nominal concentration (ppm)     Mortality (%)     Average body weight (g)     Total estimated food consumption (g)   
 day 0  day 8
 0  0 30  46  530
 464  0  25  38  500
 1,000  0  27  44  525
 2,150  0  25  37  575
 4,640  0  25  38  675
 10,000  20  25  30  475

Table 3. Mortality, average body weight (per treatment) and total food consumption (during the 5 day exposure) for the mallard duck.

 Nominal concentration (ppm)     Mortality (%)     Average body weight (g)   Total estimated food consumption (g)   
 day 0  day 8
 0  0  165  329  4,580
 464  0  185  395  4,400
 1,000  0  185  390  4,425
 2,150  0  190  385  5,100
 4,640  0  190  405  3,890
 10,000  0  175  370  3,475

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
A 5 day LC50 value equivalent to >10,000 ppm (expressed as nominal concentration in the diet) has been determined for the effects of the test substance on mortality of Mallard duck and Bobwhite quail.