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EC number: 202-448-4
CAS number: 95-76-1
In single species tests with different invertebrates and submerse
factors on the basis of 14C-activity amounted to 113 (Ceratophyllum
demersum), 79 (Elodea
canadensis), 29 (Daphnia magna), 28 (Asellus aquaticus), 15
35 (Tubifex tubifex), 30 (Limnodrilus hoffemeisteri), and 800 l/kg
(Lumbriculus variegatus). For
the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus the BCF of 800 l/kg was much
higher than those found
in other invertebrates. As the BCF values are based on radioactivity
distribution of both DCA and transformation products being formed in the
test system or in the
organisms is represented (Nagel, 1997).
After differentiation of 14C- activity in water, sediment and organisms
of the microcosm the
following BAFs based on the parent substance (3,4-DCA) could be
210 (C. demersum), 198 (E. canadensis), 276 (D. magna), 76 (A.
aquaticus), 533 (P. corneus),
271 (T. tubifex) and 572 l/kg (L. variegatus) (Nagel, 1997).
Hence the calculated bioconcentration factors for 3,4-DCA substance were
between 2.6 times
(for C. demersum) and 44.4 times (for P. corneus) higher than the
bioconcentration factors for 3,4-DCA obtained in the single species
tests. The parent compound
related sorption factor for the sediment amounted to 31 (Nagel, 1997).
The partitioning of total radioactivity and parent substance among the
compartments (water and sediment) was measured. Approximately 71% of the
was bound to sediment particles. 5.5% of 3,4-DCA could be detected in
demersum, this species accounting for only 0.14% of the total mass of
the system (approximately
35%). 2.4% of the radioactivity was bound to suspended matter in the
water (Nagel, 1997).
Summarising the results, it can be concluded, that for several aquatic
macrophytes correlations were established between log KOW and log BCF
for the test substances.
These calculations revealed basically a linear relationship between log
KOW and log BCF for
invertebrates and macrophytes. However the goodness of fit and the
characteristic parameters of
the regression line depend in this case on the chosen species. Therefore
a direct extrapolation of
BCFs from fish to other aquatic invertebrates or macrophytes and the
extrapolation of data
derived from single species tests to the complex situation in laboratory
microcosm is currently
not possible (Nagel, 1997).
The results indicate a high bioaccumulation for L. variegatus, C.
demersum, E. canadensis, T.
tubifex and P. corneus with BAF, and BCF > 100 to 800 l/kg. Therefore a
sediment dwelling organism - fish and/or birds cannot be excluded.
In addition, the results of Nagel (1997) for the epi- and endobenthic
organism Asellus aquaticus
and Tubifex tubifex of the microcosm study in comparison to the single
species show clearly, that
the bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are significantly higher than the
(BCF) determined in the single species test without sediment. This is a
very strong indication,
that the 3,4-DCA bound onto sediment is bioavailable.
An additional evidence of bioavailability of bound 3,4-DCA for
Tubificides was supplied by the
results of Egeler et al. (1997). It could be shown that 14C-DCA is
accumulated in Tubifex tubifex
from loaded sediment. For 3,4-DCA the highest BAF of the three
(3,4-DCA, Lindan, HCB) could be obtained, although 3,4-DCA is the
substance with the lowest
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