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Toxicological information

Exposure related observations in humans: other data

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
exposure-related observations in humans: other data
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Percutaneous absorption of nitroaromatic compounds: in vivo and in vitro studies in the human and monkey.
Author:
Bronaugh, R.L. and Maibach, H.I.
Year:
1985
Bibliographic source:
Journal of Investigative Dermatology 84, 180-183

Materials and methods

Type of study / information:
Absorption through human skin
Endpoint addressed:
dermal absorption
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Absorption through human skin was measured by using excised skin in diffusion cells. The relative volatility of each compound was quantitated in seperate experiments by measuring the loss of radioactivity from waxed paper or epidermal-discs.
GLP compliance:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): nitrobenzene
- Analytical purity: no data
- Radiochemical purity (if radiolabelling): > 97%
- Specific activity (if radiolabelling): 6.6 mCi/mmol
- Locations of the label (if radiolabelling): 14C-labelling

Method

Details on study design:
The absorption through excised human abdomonal skin was measured by in vitro diffusion cell techniques (static or flow-through). Dermatome sections of human skin were utilized in the permeability studies. Acetone was used as vehicle; test substance concentration was 4 µg/cm2. The site of application was washed with soap and water at 24 h in all experiments.
Exposure assessment:
measured

Results and discussion

Results:
In experiments using non-occluded skin, 7.8 ± 1.2% of the applied dose of nitrobenzene was absorbed percutaneously, whereas under conditions, where evapouration was prevented, percutaneous absorption raised up to 41.1 ± 2.0%. The evapouration of nitrobenzene from human epidermal discs at the site of application were 75.8, 30.4 and 21.9% of the applied dose after 1 min, 3 h and 24h.

Applicant's summary and conclusion