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Toxicological information

Direct observations: clinical cases, poisoning incidents and other

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
direct observations: clinical cases, poisoning incidents and other
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Evaluation of Exposure to Nitrobenzene.
Author:
Salmowa, J. et al.
Year:
1963
Bibliographic source:
British Journal of Industrial Medicine 20, 41-46

Materials and methods

Study type:
study with volunteers
Endpoint addressed:
acute toxicity: inhalation
Principles of method if other than guideline:
In order to obtain a quantitative test for measuring exposure to nitrobenzene, experiments on men were done, in which nitrobenzene vapours (5 to 30 µg/L) were absorbed into the lungs only. Chamber used in experiment was described in detail by Dutkiewicz (1960a). Experimental details were similar to those described by Dutkiewicz (1961) in studying the absorption of aniline vapour by man.
GLP compliance:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): nitrobenzene
- Analytical purity: no data

Method

Subjects:
- Number of subjects exposed: 7 persons (16 experiments)
Route of exposure:
inhalation
Reason of exposure:
intentional
Exposure assessment:
measured

Results and discussion

Any other information on results incl. tables

Upon inhalative exposure of 7 persons to nitrobenzene vapour (5 to 30 µg/L) for 6 hours, retention in the lungs was found
to be in average 80% (exposure diminished from 87% to 73% during the 6 -hour exposure, indicating a low rate of conversion of nitrobenzene in the body taht leads to blodd saturation). Urine was tested for p-aminophenol and p-nitrophenol; only the latter was found. It represented in average about 13 to 16% of the retained dose with very variable individual results (6 to 37%). Excretion was maximal at the end of the exposure period and proceeded very slowly (half life of about 5 and > 70 h). In some cases, p-nitrophenol could be detected in the urine after more than 100 hours. In the investigated dose range an average of 6 to 22% of the dose is excreted in the urine as p-nitrophenol.

Applicant's summary and conclusion