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EC number: 202-716-0
CAS number: 98-95-3
In a 72 hours phytotoxicity test eight
species of plants were exposed to nitrobenzene in exposure chambers
(McFarlane et al., 1990). All plant species examined in this study were
provided with nutrient medium containing nitrobenzene. Phytotoxicity to
nitrobenzene varies considerably between species. When roots were dosed
at 8 mg/l the photosynthesis and transpiration responses vary from no
effect to complete suppression. No visible symptoms or changes in the
transpiration or photosynthetic rates occurred with soybeans (glycine
maximus), barley (hordeum vulgare), honeysuckle (lonicera tatarica) and
poplar (populus robusta). For these species the 72 h NOEC ≥ 8 mg/l.
Green ash (fraxinus pennsylvanica) and lettuce (lactuca sativa) showed
no visible symptoms but suffered an initial decrease in both
transpiration and photosynthesis rate. The ash plants started recovery
after about 10 hours. Lettuce plants recovered much more slowly, the
photosynthetic rate started to increase after about 60 hours. Two
Elaeagnus species seem to be the most sensitive to nitrobenzene. Autumn
olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) did not survive the dosing of 8 mg/l (LC100
= 8 mg/l). Shortly after dosing the transpiration and photosynthetic
rate decreased rapidly and did not recover, leaves dropped spontaneously
and by the end of the study all remaining leaves dropped when the plants
were touched. Russian olive plants (Elaeagnus angustifolia) were similar
to the autumn olive in that some of the leaves on some of the plants
dropped. However, the newest leaves and all leaves on one plant remained
intact and continued to function (photosynthesis and transpiration),
although at reduced rates. Recovery started after about 10 hours and was
complete at the end of the experiment. Inhibition of root growth of
soybean plants (glycine maximus) without an accompanied impairment of
transpiration and photosynthesis rate was also observed (Fletcher J et
al., 1990). The plants were exposed to nitrobenzene concentrations of
0.02 to 100 mg/l via roots and harvested after 72 hours. The lower
concentration of nitrobenzene did not appear to cause plant damage or
alter shoot growth. But a visual examination of roots before and after
nitrobenzene exposure indicated that the highest concentration inhibited
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