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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Description of key information

There are two key studies which investigated acute toxicity of Bisphenol A towards freshwater and marine water invertebrates. For freshwater a 48 h-EC50 of 10.2 mg/L was reported (Daphnia magna; Alexander et al., 1985, published in Alexander et al., 1988). Tests on acute toxicity of Bisphenol A towards marine water invertebrates resulted in a 96-hr LC50 of 1.1 mg/L (Americamysis bahia, previous name: Mysidopsis bahia; Springborn Bionomics, 1985b; published in Alexander et al., 1988). 

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
10.2 mg/L
EC50/LC50 for marine water invertebrates:
1.1 mg/L

Additional information

There are two key studies for acute invertebrate toxicity with BPA. A 48-hr static exposure acute study according to E07-04, ASTM E-35.21 method with Daphnia magna was performed with Bisphenol A (Alexander et al., 1985; published in Alexander et al., 1988). Daphnia were exposed to a negative control and nominal concentrations ranging from 0.93 to 20.0 mg/L. These corresponded to measured concentrations ranging from 0.90 to 19.34 mg/L. The 48-h EC50 was 10.2 mg/L, respectively.

A 96-hr acute flow-through study with the estuarine mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia, previous name: Mysidopsis bahia) in accordance with E07-04 method was performed with Bisphenol A (Springborn Bionomics, 1985b; published in Alexander et al., 1988). Americamysis bahia were exposed to nominal concentrations of 0, 0.89, 1.4, 2.1, 3.2, and 5.0 mg/L. These corresponded to measured concentrations of 0, 0.51, 0.86, 1.4, 1.9, and 3.3 mg/L, respectively. The 96-h LC50 from this study was calculated to be 1.1 mg/L.

Many studies are available which address the short-term toxicity of Bisphenol A to freshwater and marine water invertebrates, although often there has not been confirmation of test concentrations during the study. The two key studies were identified that did follow appropriate guidelines with analytical confirmation of exposure concentrations.

There are several supporting studies which were identified in addition to the key studies (mostly Klimisch 2). Mu et al., 2005a, investigated effects on Daphnia magna according to EPA/660/3-75-009 method and reported an EC50 of 16 mg/L. Brennan et al., 2006, conducted an acute study with D. magna following ISO 6341 15 method and determined an EC50 of 7.8 mg/L. Warbritton, 2005, performed an acute non-guideline snail study with Marisa cornuarietis which reported an EC50 of 2.24 mg/L. Stephenson et al., 1983, published an exploratory, non-guideline study with D. magna and reported an EC50 of 3.9 mg/L. Pascoe et al., 2002a, conducted a study with Hydra vulgaris and reported an EC50 of 6.9 mg/L. Andersen et al., 2001, used Arcatia tonsa to dertermine acute toxicity with a LC50 of 4.2 mg/L. Chen et al., 2002, performed an OECD 202 study with D. magna and report an EC50 of 10 mg/L. Kusk et al., 1999, published another study with Arcatia tonsa according to ISO/DIS 14669 method and reported an EC50 in the range of 3.4-5 mg/L. Finally, Marcial et al., 2003a, published an exploratory study with the copepod Tigriopus japonicas and reported of acute toxicity with an EC50 of 4.32 mg/L.

Thus, there is a huge set of studies which support the key studies an L/EC50 values were in the range of 2.24-16 mg/L.

In contrast, several other chronic fish studies which are listed and discussed in this chapter were rated as Klimisch 3 (not reliable) due to major short-comings or Klimisch 4 (not assignable) due to e.g. insufficient documentation and disregarded in the risk assessment. Full justifications for disregard are provided in the endpoint study records and the respective robust study summaries (e.g. Roepke et al., 2005, Andersen et al., 1999, Arslan and Parlak, 2007).

In conclusion, there are two key studies, one for the freshwater compartment (Alexander et al., 1985; published in Alexander et al., 1988) reporting an EC50 of 10.2 mg/L and one for the marine water compartment (Springborn Bionomics, 1985b; published in Alexander et al., 1988) with an LC50 of 1.1 mg/L. These studies were used for the risk assessment.