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Sediment toxicity

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Description of key information

On day 28 exposure, for the marine amphipod L. plumulosus, the LOEC based on survival and reproduction was 78 mg/kg-dw and the NOEC was 32 mg/kg-dw. For dry weight, the LOEC was 32 mg/kg-dw and the NOEC was 12 mg/kg-dw. For survival, growth, and reproduction, 28-d LC50 values (with 95 % confidence intervals) were 49 (46 to 51) mg/kg-dw, 54 (14 to 76) mg/kg-dw, and 38 (11 to 52) mg/kg-dw, respectively.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC10, LC10 or NOEC for freshwater sediment:
12 mg/kg sediment dw

Additional information

Staples et al., 2015_Leptocheirus plumulosus

Effects of Bisphenol A on benthic organisms were assessed in the present study using spiked sediments as well as overlying water containing Bisphenol A. The premise of this method is that the test system will enable the exposure of the test organisms to Bisphenol A from dosed sediment, spiked overlying water, and pore water as Bisphenol A equilibrates between sediment solids and the pore water. Within the test systems, overlying water concentrations decreased rapidly to below detection limits during all tests despite renewal of the water three times per week. This was expected due to the rapid biodegradability of Bisphenol A in surface waters and sediments. Pore water concentrations of Bisphenol A also decreased somewhat during the course of the 28 day tests, but never below detection limits. The ratio of a sediment concentration and its pore water concentration is a distribution coefficient (Kd value) and ranged from 40 to 50 for the marine amphipod test.

In accordance with the Methods for Assessing the Chronic Toxicity of Marine and Estuarine Sediment-Associated Contaminants with the Amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus (EPA/600/R-01/020, Washington, DC, USA). five measured concentrations (2.0, 5.0, 12, 32, and 78 mg/kg-dw) of Bisphenol A for all treatments were exposed for 28 days.

For the marine amphipod L. plumulosus, the LOEC based on survival and reproduction was 78 mg/kg-dw and the NOEC was 32 mg/kg-dw. For dry weight, the LOEC was 32 mg/kg-dw and the NOEC was 12 mg/kg-dw. For survival, growth, and reproduction, 28-d LC50 values (with 95 % confidence intervals) were 49 (46 to 51) mg/kg-dw, 54 (14 to 76) mg/kg-dw, and 38 (11 to 52) mg/kg-dw, respectively.

Staples et al., 2015_Lumbriculus variegatus

Effects of Bisphenol A on benthic organisms were assessed in the present study using spiked sediments as well as overlying water containing Bisphneol A. The premise of this method is that the test system will enable the exposure of the test organisms to Bisphenol A from dosed sediment, spiked overlying water, and pore water as Bisphenol A equilibrates between sediment solids and the pore water. Within the test systems, overlying water concentrations decreased rapidly to below detection limits during all tests despite renewal of the water three times per week. This was expected due to the rapid biodegradability of Bisphenol A in surface waters and sediments. Pore water concentrations of Bisphenol A also decreased somewhat during the course of the 28 day tests, but never below detection limits. The ratio of a sediment concentration and its pore water concentration is a distribution coefficient (Kd value) and ranged from 7.7 to 16 for the oligochaete test.

In accordance with the OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals. Sediment-Water Lumbriculus Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment. Guideline # 225 (Adopted 16 October 2007, Paris, France) five measured concentrations ( 1.6, 3.9, 11, 22, and 57 mg/kg-dw) of Bisphenol A for all treatments were exposed for 28 days.

For L. variegatus, the LOEC was 57 mg/kg-dw and the NOEC was 22 mg/kg-dw based on numbers of oligochaetes recovered per replicate and biomass per replicate. Since no concentration tested resulted in ≥50 % reduction in numbers of oligochaetes recovered or biomass per replicate, EC50 values were empirically estimated to be >57 mg/kg-dw, the highest mean measured concentration tested.

Staples et al., 2015_Chironomus riparius

Effects of Bisphenol A on benthic organisms were assessed in the present study using spiked sediments as well as overlying water containing Bisphenol A. The premise of this method is that the test system will enable the exposure of the test organisms to Bisphenol A from dosed sediment, spiked overlying water, and pore water as Bisphenol A equilibrates between sediment solids and the pore water. Within the test systems, overlying water concentrations decreased rapidly to below detection limits during all tests despite renewal of the water three times per week. This was expected due to the rapid biodegradability of Bisphenol A in surface waters and sediments. Pore water concentrations of Bisphenol A also decreased somewhat during the course of the 28 day tests, but never below detection limits. The ratio of a sediment concentration and its pore water concentration is a distribution coefficient (Kd value) and ranged from 5.8 to 9.1 for the midge test.

In accordance with the OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals. Sediment Water Chironomid Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment. Guideline #218 (Adopted 13 April 2004, Paris, France) five measured concentrations (29, 54, 110, 210, and 490 mg/kgdw) of Bisphenol A for all treatments were exposed for 28 days.

For C. riparius, the LOEC was 110 mg/kg-dw and the NOEC was 54 mg/kg-dw based on percent emergence. For percent emergence and development rate, 28-d EC50 values (with 95 % confidence intervals) were 140 (120 to 150) mg/kg-dw and >210 mg/kg-dw (95 % confidence intervals could not be calculated since no effects on development rate were observed).