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Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to fish

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Description of key information

There are four key studies which report of acute toxicity to fish for fresh or marine water. The lowest LC50 value in each compartment was used in the risk assessment to provide a conservative assessment. Alexander et al., 1985, published in Alexander et al., 1988, determined an LC50 of 4.6 mg/L in an OECD 203 study with Pimephales promelas (fresh water). Springborn Bionomics, 1985a (published in Alexander et al., 1988) reported an LC50 of 9.4 mg/L in an OECD 203 study with Menidia menidia (marine water).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

LC50 for freshwater fish:
4.6 mg/L
LC50 for marine water fish:
9.4 mg/L

Additional information

There are four key studies that are reliable without restriction which characterise the acute toxicity of Bisphenol A towards freshwater and marine water fish. All studies report of LC50 which refer to mortality. The 96-hour flow-through exposure to the freshwater fish fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) in an OECD 203 study resulted in an LC50 of 4.6 mg/L (Alexander et al., 1985; published as Alexander et al., 1988). In an extended acute toxicity (OECD 204) semi-static, 14-day study with zebra fish (Danio rerio) a NOEC of 3.2 mg/ L was determined (Bayer AG, 1998).

The following two marine fish were tested in acute exposures. A 96-hour acute flow-through exposure to the sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) resulted in an LC50 of 11 mg/L in an OECD 203 study (Sayers, 2009). Similarly, a 96-hour acute flow-through exposure to the marine fish Atlantic silverside (Menidia menidia) in an OECD 203 study, resulted in an LC50 of 9.4 mg/L (Springborn Bionomics, 1985a; also reported in Alexander et al., 1988).

Further supporting studies (all Klimisch 2) were identified which report of LC50 in the range of 3.0 to 9.9 mg/L BPA. These were by Emmittee et al., (1978) in a non-guideline study with Cyprinodon variegatus and a 96-h LC50 = 7.5 mg/L, Reif and Phil (1979) in an OECD 203 study with Onchorhynchus mykiss and a 96-h LC50 = 3-5 mg/L, and Bayer (1989) with Danio rerio and an 96-h LC50 = 9.9 mg/L.