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EC number: 200-756-3
CAS number: 71-55-6
There are numerous acute oral and inhalation studies conducted in animals showing very low acute toxicity (LD 50’s in the region of 10,000 mg/kg or ppm). Dermal data is less prevailant but again the LD 50 is in the region of 15,000 mg/kg. A recent ATSDR review (2006) found lethal inhalation doses in humans to be in the region of 6000 to 20 000 ppm. 1,1,1-trichloroehtane can therefore be considered to be of no serious acute hazard. However, it should be noted that in humans exposure to 175 ppm for 3.5 hours results in reduced psychomotor abilities.
1,1,1-trichloroethane is of low acute toxicity
following oral (gavage) exposure. The dog is the most sensitive
species, having an LD50 of 750 mg/kg bwt, follwed by the rabbit with an
LD50 or 5660 mg/kg bwt. In the rat and mosue LD 50 values range from
9700 to 17148 mg/kg bwt.
Summary of acute
toxicity via the oral route
750 mg/kg bw
5660 mg/kg bw
IUCLID 4 (GLP)
> 2000 mg/kg bw
14600 mg/kg bw
12300 mg/kg bw
11000 mg/kg bw
10300 mg/kg bw
9700 mg/kg bw
11240 mg/kg bw
8600 mg/kg bw
9470 mg/kg bw
10500 mg/kg bw
NOEL 4000 mg/kg bwt
17148 mg/kg bwt
12996 mg/kg bwt
The value for the
dog is not cross referenced in any other reviews (eg ASTDR, WHO or RAIS)
and is therefore not considered reliable.
Studies of animal mortality following acute
inhalation exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane are numerous. Median lethal
concentrations (LC50 values) have been calculated for rats and mice. For
rats, LC50 values from 14250 to 38,000 ppm were reported. For mice,
reported LC50 values ranged from 3,911 to 29492 ppm. Much of the
variation in these data can be attributed to differences in the exposure
duration (higher LC50 values were generally obtained in studies with
short exposure periods).
of acute toxicity via the inhalation route
Male and female
3.8 % in air (38000 ppm)
0.7 % in air for cardiac changes
is the most likely route of exposure in man and the US Agency for Toxic
Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) recently (July 2006) produced a
full toxicological profile for 1,1,1-trichloroehtane. In this review it
is reported that the lethal concetraion of 1,1,1-trichlorethane in
humans is between 6000 and 20000 ppm and that human death following
exposure is usually attributed to either depression of the central
nervous system, which results in respiratory arrest or sensitisation of
the heart to epinephrine which results in severe cardiac arrhythmias.
Also reported in this review is the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level
(LOAEL) of 175 ppm for reduced performance of psychomotor tests in a
human study by Mackay et al. (1987). Individuals exposed to 175 or 350
ppm of 1,1,1-trichloroethane for 3.5 hours demonstrated impaired
performance of psychomotor tests. This is supported by results of other
human studies. Gamberale and Hultengren (1973) found psychophysiological
test performance deficits in exposed individuals, although at a higher
concentration than the LOAEL of 175 ppm identified by Mackay et al.
(1987). Muttray et al. (1999, 2000) found EEG changes consistent with
increased drowsiness and slight irritant nasal responses in volunteers
exposed to 200 ppm. (ATSDR 2006).
Only limited data is available regarding the acute
effects of dermal exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane and the volatile
nature of the substance means that contact, unless covered, is likely to
be brief. Exposure in the rabbit suggests that 1,1,1-trichloroethane is
only lethal at very high doses, the LD 50 being greater than 15,800
Summary of acute toxicity via the
> 15800 mg/kg bw
A number of studies using the intraperitoneal route
have also demonstrated relatively low acute toxicity, the LD50 being
between 2000 to 5080 mg/kg bwt; although it should be noted that one
limit study conducted at 2 mL/kg was associated with 4/5 deaths in the
male rat group only.
Summary of acute
toxicity via the intra peritoneal route
3100 mg/kg bw
3593 mg/kg bw
3700 mg/kg bw
4140 mg/kg bw
5080 mg/kg bw
2 ml/kg bw
> 2ml/kg bw
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