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Environmental fate & pathways

Monitoring data

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Endpoint:
monitoring data
Type of information:
other: Review document
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
<1999
Reliability:
other: The exposure assessment conducted in this document comes from a number of sources
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
The review was conducted to current European criteria by a competent European authority (EURO CHLOR) and was requested by OSPARCOM for submission to the European Union to evaluate the effects of chlorine materials on the aquatic environment with particular reference to the North Sea. The studies available to the reviewers included studies other than those in the public domain. The reliability of this review can be rated as a 2.
Cross-reference
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
1999

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline required
Deviations:
not applicable
Remarks:
review document
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Analysis for 1,1,1-trichloroethane was conducted as part of a systematic monitoring programme organised at an inter government level to monitor concentrations in marine, river and estuarine waters during the 1980's and 1990's. Samples were analysed over an area covering the Arctic Sea to the mouth of the English Channel.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of measurement:
other: Both background and point source areas.
Media:
other: Saltwater,brackish water and river water.

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
Not applicable. This work involved monitoring by analysis of concentrations in the aquatic medium to determine background levels and worst-case point source contaminated sites.

Study design

Details on sampling:
No details on sampling are provided however as this exercise was conducted as part of a government programme sampling techniques will have been scientifically valid and probably conducted in a manner making the data collected uniform to permit usable conclusions to be drawn from the data collected by different agencies.

Results and discussion

Concentration
Country:
other: Estuaries and coastal waters 1990-1992
Location:
UK and Netherland
Substance or metabolite:
substance
Conc.:
0.024 - 0.206 µg/L
Remarks on result:
other: The lower concentration is the geometric mean background level and the higher concentration is the highest worst-case reading.
Details on results:
The authors interpret the results as indicating that in open seas levels of 1,1,1-trichloroethane are extremely low. In coastal and estuarine conditions around the North Sea observed concentrations range from <0.005 - 7.6ug/L although levels above 1.0ug/L are considered outliers. The most recent general survey showed levels to range from 0.024ug/L up to a worst-case situation of 0.206ug/L primarily as a result from restrictions in use resulting from the Montreal protocol implimentation. In inland rivers levels from the most recent surveys are usually <0.1ug/L. Where industry is concentrated levels can rise to 0.6ug/L (a value for the Mersey of 1.1ug/L is considered an outlier).
The results are presented as a series of detailed tables and maps. A summary of the information in these tables is provided below.

Any other information on results incl. tables

Location

Sampling date

Water characteristics

Trichloroethane concentration (mg/L)

North Sea (open)

1983-84

Salt

0.005

Artic Sea (Spitzburg)

1980

Salt

0.0025

Artic Sea (open)

1987

Salt

0.00005

Great Britain

English Channel (Plymouth)

1993

Salt

0.015

North Sea coast

1993

Salt

0.015 - 0.137

Solent estuary

1990

Salt/brackish

0.005 - 2.79

Humber estuary

1993

1992

Salt/brackish

0.0051 - 0.053

0.01 - 0.049

Tees estuary

1996

1992

Salt/brackish

0.1

0.206

Wear estuary

1992

Salt/brackish

0.01 - 0.064

Tyne estuary

1992

Salt/brackish

0.01 - 0.089

Liverpool Bay

1992

Salt/brackish

0.01 - 0.04

Poole

1992

Salt/brackish

0.01 - 0.015

Mersey estuary

1989

1993

Salt/brackish

0.07 - 7.6

0.167

Humber

1990

Freshwater

0.053

Mersey

1991

Freshwater

1.1

Belgium

Scheldt, Doel

1994

Freshwater

0.17 - 0.49

Scheldt, Baasrode

1995

Freshwater

0.097

Meuse

1992-94

1995

Freshwater

0.03

0.1

France

Loire estuary

1983-84

Salt/brackish

0.048 - 0.068

Siene

1995

Freshwater

1.0

Netherlands

Rhine/Maas estuary

1983-84

1994

Salt/brackish

Max 0.029

0.020

Ijsselmeer

1989-92

Salt/brackish

0.1

North Sea coast

1983-84

1990

Salt

0.007

0.1

Rhine

1983

Freshwater

0.005 - 0.08

Rhine. Lobith

1990

1991

1993

Freshwater

Max 0.1

0.05

0.05

Rhine, Hagestien

1991-92

Freshwater

0.1

Maas, Eijsden

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

Freshwater

0.15

0.19

0.17

0.26

0.08

Maas, Keizersveer

1992

1993

1994-95

Freshwater

0.02

0.01

0.01

Germany

Schlei estuary

1981

Baltic Sea

Max 0.145

North Sea coast

1981

Salt

Max 0.005

Weser estuary

1981

1993

Baltic Sea

Max 0.025

0.1

Necker

1982-83

1988

0.1

0.03 - 0.06

Rodau

1985-89

Freshwater

0.2 - 1.0

Unterweser

1985-87

Freshwater

0.1

Elbe, Schnackenburg

1980-aged to

Freshwater

0.022

Elbe, Stade

1981

Freshwater

0.03 - 0.057

Elbe profile

1992

Freshwater

0.01 - 0.04

Main

1989-90

Freshwater

0.01 - 0.03

Rhine, Bad Honnef

1990

Freshwater

0.05 - 0.08

Rhine, Koln

1991

Freshwater

0.03 - 0.21

Rhine, Dusseldorf

1986

Freshwater

Max 0.1

Rhine, Niederrhein

1985

Freshwater

0.14

Rhine, Karlsruhe

1988

Freshwater

0.02 - 0.09

Sieg

1986-90

Freshwater

0.1 - 0.1

Wupper

1986-91

Freshwater

0.05 - 0.6

Erft

1986-91

Freshwater

0.1 - 0.2

Ruhr

1986-90

Freshwater

0.05 - 0.6

Emscher

1986-91

Freshwater

0.5 - 2.4

Lippe

1986-91

Freshwater

0.1 - 0.53

Sweden

Skagerrak

1988

Salt

0.0024 - 0.003

Switzerland

Northern (155 samples, 45 rivers.)

1981-83

Freshwater

0.064

Rivers and lakes (general)

1984

Freshwater

0.063

Key < + below the LOD

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
The paper summarises the results of an comprehensive survey which has been ongoing for over 20 years covering both salt, brackish and freshwater. The results from the most recent survey (UK and Netherlands 1990-92) showed that the geometric mean for marine and estuarine waters was 0.024ug/L which comfortably meets current EU maximum limits of 10ug/L. The maximum levels recorded in freshwater is 1.1ug/L which is also well within the current EU permissible maximum.
Executive summary:

This paper summarises the aquatic monitoring data conducted governmental authorities or agencies on 1,1,1-trichloroethane in marine, brackish and freshwater environments. The results showed that over a 20 year period concentrations in all environments are comparatively low. In coastal and estuarine conditions around the North Sea observed concentrations range from <0.005 - 7.6ug/L were recorded although where levels above 1.0ug/L have been recorded these are considered outliers. The most recent general survey showed levels are falling to range from 0.024ug/L up to a worst-case situation of 0.206ug/L primarily as a result of restrictions in use resulting from the Montreal protocol.  In inland rivers levels from the most recent surveys are usually of the order of 0.1ug/L although again as in the marine environment high concentrations are occasionally found particularly where industry is concentrated. In industrial situations levels can rise to 0.6ug/L (a value for the Mersey of 1.1ug/L is considered an outlier).

Information available from surveys permits the calculation of the potential PEC without the use of models. The data recorded indicates that concentrations of 1,1,1-trichloroethane are well below the current EU recommended maximum of 10ug/L.