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Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to fish

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Description of key information

The results of the number of studies have been included in this section. However from a risk assessment standpoint (De Rooij et al 2004) the most useful document is a review conducted by EURO CHLOR for the European Union Commission conducted to assist in the formulation of policy on chlorinated industrial chemicals. The results of this review showed that although the bulk of the trichloroethane released into the environment would find its way into the atmosphere sufficient would be present in surface waters (marine and freshwater) to justify a full-scale risk assessment.  The studies available in this review  were sufficient to conclude that the risk to the aquatic environment based on figures obtained before the effects of the Montreal protocol came into effect were sufficient to indicate that for fish there was no cause for concern. 

Key value for chemical safety assessment

LC50 for freshwater fish:
42.3 mg/L
LC50 for marine water fish:
33 mg/L

Additional information

The results of a risk assessment (De Rooij et al 2004) on a review conducted by EURO CHLOR indicate that there appeared to be no difference between toxicity to fresh water and marine fish and, as trichloroethane is considered to be a basic rather than a specific toxin, the results from both of freshwater and marine species can be used together. Results of the review are as follows.

Acute studies on freshwater fish.

Species

Duration

Study type

Endpoint

Conc.

(mg/L)

SF 1000 (ug/L)

Validity

Comments

Reference

Pimephales

promelas

96h

FT,A

EC50

LC50

11.1

52.8

11.1

52.8

1

Loss of equilibrium

Alexander

et al 1978

96h

FT,A

EC50

LC50

28.8

42.3

28.8

42.3

1

Respiration, loss of equilibrium

Brooke

et al 1985

96h

FT,A

LC50

52.9

52.9

1

96h

S,N

LC50

105

105

2

Alexander

et al 1978

Lepomis macrochirus

96h

S,N

LC50

72

72

2

Buccafusco

et al 1981

96h

S

LC50

69.7

69.7

4

US EPA 1980

Oryzias

Latipes

48h

FT

LC50

73

73

2

CITI 1992

Leuciscus idus melanotus

48h

S,N

LC50

123

123

2

Juhnke & Ludeman 1978

Poecilia reticulata

7 day

SS,N,C

LC50

133

133

2

Konemann 1981

96h

S

LC50

148

148

2

Acute studies on marine fish.

Species

Duration

Study type

Endpoint

Conc.

(mg/L)

SF 1000

(ug/L)

Validity

Comments

Reference

Limanda limanda

96h

FT,A,C

LC50

33

33

2

No isomer confirmation

Pearson & McConnel 1975

Cyprinodon variegatus

96h

S,N

LC50

71

71

2

Heitmuller et al 1981

Key:            

Analysis A = Yes, N = nominal concentration

Study type S = static, SS = semi-static, FT = flow through. C = closed system.

Rating for validity 1 = valid without restriction, 2 = valid with restrictions, 3 = invalid, 4 = not assignable (inadequate data).

In addition to the studies listed above other studies are included in the dossier but they do not materially change the results obtained in the published risk assessment (quality criteria for all additional studies are below the reviewers criteria of category 1 - valid without restriction).

The results from acute studies which the authors considered to be valid without restriction (category 1) show that the 96h LC50 and EC50 NOEC) values for fish are 42.3 and 11.1mg/L. Based on that these results and the monitored results of concentrations of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in river and estuarine situations in northern Europe the authors conclude that the PEC/PNEC ratios incorporating standard safety factors are comfortably below (35x) levels that would cause concern

  • = LOEC