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EC number: 200-001-8
CAS number: 50-00-0
An experimental study similar to OECD guideline 202 (1981) was conducted to assess the toxicity of the test item to aquatic invertebrates. The test organism Daphnia pulex was exposed to the test item for 48 h in a static system. The mobility was observed and the effect values EC50, EC10 and EC90 were derived. An EC50 of 5.8 mg/L was determined by Probit analysis based on the active ingredients.
No analytical monitoring was performed to verify the concentrations. Nevertheless, the test substance concentration can be assumed to be stable during the exposure period. This is due to the low volatilization potential from water (cf. 5.4.2) and the low adsorption potential (cf. 5.4.1). Biodegradation of the test substance during the exposure period cannot be excluded completely (cf. 5.2). Furthermore, it was demonstrated in the frame of a fish test (Bills 1977) that the effect values did not change when an aged test solution was used indicating that the test substance is stable during the incubation period. Therefore, the effects to invertebrates are not underestimated using the nominal values. Based on the results of the experimental study with Daphnia pulex the test item is acutely toxic to aquatic freshwater invertebrates.
An experimental study with Pinctada fucata martensii according to APHA-AWWA-WPCF (1989) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater was conducted to assess the toxicity of the test item to saltwater invertebrates (Takayanagi, 2000). In a semi static set-up 1- and 2-year-old test organisms were exposed to 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 200 mg/L of the test item for 96 h. The concentrations were monitored analytically, and the mortality was recorded every 24 h. The 1-year-old oysters were the most sensitive in the study with an LC50 of 5.3 mg/L after 96 h. The effect value for the 2-year-olds was slightly higher with 6.4 mg/L but within the same range. Pinctada fucata martensii was the most sensitive of the tested species. Therefore, the EC50 (96 h) for the 1-year-olds was used for further assessment.
Acute toxic for marine and freshwater invertebrates
Several publications are available which assessed the acute toxicity of the test item to different aquatic fresh- and saltwater invertebrate species (see table 1). The results with the most sensitive species were selected as key studies for freshwater and saltwater each.
An experimental study similar to OECD guideline 202 (1981) was conducted with Daphnia pulex (Tisler, 1997). The test organism Daphnia pulex was exposed to the test item for 48 h in a static system. The mobility was observed and the effect values EC50, EC10 and EC90 were derived. An EC50 of 5.8 mg/L was determined by Probit analysis based on the active ingredients. This result was the most sensitive value and was therefore used for further assessment.
These results were supported by another publication with Daphnia magna according to the same guideline (OECD 202) and 48 h exposure (Janssen & Persoone 1993). An EC50 of 29 mg/l was observed which indicates lower sensitivity of Daphnia magna in comparison to Daphnia pulex. Slightly lower results were achieved in two publications of Bringmann & Kuehn (1977 and 1982). After 24 h exposure EC50 values of 14.7 and 18.2 mg/L were detected.
Effect values in a similar range were detected in experimental studies with Helisoma sp. After 96 h exposure an EC50 of 37.16 mg/L was observed (Bills, 1977).
Two additional publications with the marine invertebrates Corbicula sp. (Bills, 1977) and Ceriodaphnia dubia (Warne, 1999) are available. Both species were less sensitive in comparison to Pinctada fucata martensii with LC50 (96h) =50.34 mg/L (Corbicula sp.) and EC50 (48h) =12.98 mg/L (C. dubia).
In conclusion, the test item is acutely toxic to freshwater and marine invertebrates with effect values within the same range.
Table 1 Overview of available data for the assessment of the acute toxicity to aquatic invertebrates (freshwater and saltwater).
EC50 (48 h) = 5.8 mg/L
Janssen & Persoone 1993
EC50 (48h) = 29 mg/L
Bringmann & Kuehn 1982
EC50 (24h) = 14.7 mg/L
Bringmann & Kuehn 1977
EC50 (24h) = 18.2 mg/L
LC50 (96h) = 37.16 mg/L
TLm = 100-1000 mg/L(24h)
Pinctada fucata martensii
LC50(96 h) = 5.3 mg/L
LC50 (96h) =50.34 mg/L
EC50 (48h) =12.98 mg/L
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