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Aquatic toxicity testing with BADGE was complicated by the fact that the test material has a reported water solubility in the range of 0.18 – 11 mg/L, or more generally as < 10 mg/L. This limited the ability, in some aquatic tests, to specifically determine certain toxicity endpoints, since adverse effects may not have been observed at water soluble concentrations. Additionally, several aquatic toxicity studies were deemed unacceptable for use in the risk assessment process since the test material was reported to be insoluble at some or all of the test concentrations used in the study. In these cases, the test material was reported as a surface film or a sinking droplet in the test solution. Thus, due to potential physical effects on the test system and the influence this may have had on the toxicity results, the studies that reported test material coming out of solution in this manner were scored as “3 (not reliable)” and were not used in PNEC derivations.

 

In regards to BADGE and BADGE-related resins, there were acute toxicity data sets available for fish, invertebrates and algae, and a chronic toxicity study with the freshwater invertebrate, Daphnia magna. For fish, the 96-hour LC50 value of 2.0 mg/L for BADGE and BADGE-related resins was derived as the geometric mean of four 96-hour LC50 values taken from valid exposure studies with BADGE and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). For invertebrates,the 48-hour EC50 value of 1.8 mg/L for BADGE and BADGE-related resins was derived as the geometric mean of five 48-hour EC50 values taken from valid exposure studies with BADGE and Daphnia magna. For the chronic invertebrate study with D. magna,the 21-day NOEC for BADGE and BADGE-related resins (based on survival, growth and reproduction) was 0.3 mg/L. In a growth inhibition test with Scenedesmus capricornutum,the 72-hour ErC50 for BADGE and BADGE-related resins was determined to be > 11 mg/L, which was the limit of solubility for BADGE, and the 72-hour NOEC (based on growth rate) for BADGE and BADGE-related resins was determined to be 4.2 mg/L. 

 

Taken together, the lowest aquatic toxicity value for BADGE and BADGE-related resins is the 21-day NOEC of 0.3 mg/L based on D. magna growth, survival and reproduction.