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EC number: 284-366-9
CAS number: 84852-53-9
DBDPEthane's estimated Koc is 3,312,000.
This is consistent with the substance's known propensity to bind to
Selected Properties of the Soils, Sediments, and Activated Sludge
A summary of soil properties is presented in Table 5. Soil analytical
reports received from Agvise
Laboratories are shown in Appendix 6. Moisture content in a silt loam
soil was 3.83 g /100 g and in a sandy soil
it was 0.35 g/100 g (Table 8). The pH of silt loam (TB-PF) and sandy
(Speyer # 2.1) soils (in 0.01 M CaCl2, at
soil: solution ratio 1:2) was 7.1 and 5.4 and soil organic carbon
content was 4.2% and 0.76%, respectively
(Table 5). These properties were consistent with the requirements for
the soils No. 2 and No. 5 of the OECD
106 study guideline , respectively.
Summary of sediment properties is presented in Table 6. Brandywine Creek
sediment used in the study contained 52.1%
sand and 0.33% organic carbon, while Choptank River sediment contained
96.9% sand and 0.59% organic
carbon (Table 6). Thus, the samples represented sediments with two
different textures. The pH of the sediments
(in 0.01 M CaCl2 at sediment: solution ratio 1:2) was 6.0 and 6.2,
respectively. The pH in pore water was not
determined due to insufficient amount of water obtained by
centrifugation of these sediments. Brandywine
Creek and Choptank River sediment samples contained 40.34 g/100 g and
28.12 g/100 g of moisture,
respectively (Table 9).
Tier 1. Preliminary Test
Adsorption of the Test Substance to the Test Vessels and to the
After 24-hour equilibration of [14C] DBDPEthane in aqueous 0.01 M CaCl2
solution in various types of
vessels, the recovery of radioactivity in the aqueous phase was 0.8% to
26.3% of applied radioactivity (AR)
(Table 10). Thus, DBDPEthane was adsorbed by the walls of all tested
vessels. Wheaton bottles were selected for use in the subsequent testing
due to no alternative vessel providing better recoveries.
Retention by Filters and Centrifuge Tubes
Filtration through Whatman Nylon 0.2 μm pore size 25-mm diameter filters
resulted in the recovery of
only 5.6% to 16.1% of that present in the unfiltered solutions at both
pH levels (Table 12). Thus, [14C]
DBDPEthane was strongly retained by the materials of the filters and
filtration was not applicable to remove
particulate matter in this project. After centrifugation in Pyrex glass
25-mL tubes, the recovery of [14C]
DBDPEthane was 41.9 to 57.8% of the amount in the aqueous layer prior to
centrifugation (Table 12).
Centrifugation was selected for separation of aqueous and solid phases.
Distribution between Aqueous Phase and Wheaton Bottle Surfaces
After 24-hour equilibration, total amount of radioactivity recovered in
the aqueous phase plus bottle
extraction was 64.6% to 91.1% of AR (Table 13). The bottle extracts
generally contained the higher proportion
of AR than the aqueous phases.
Tier 2. Adsorption Kinetics Test
Solution concentration of [14C] DBDPEthane decreased with period of
equilibration in the controls and
in all test systems (Tables 14 to 20). After 48 hours of equilibration,
concentration of DBDPEthane was 0.006 to 0.015 μg/L in the soil test
systems, 0.004 to 0.019 μg/L in sediment systems, and 0.077 to 0.127
μg/L in activated sludge solids systems. In Control test vessels
concentration of DBDPEthane decreased to 0.011 - 0.025 μg/L.
In soil and sediment test systems 93.3% to 98.8% of applied
radioactivity (AR) was adsorbed after
2 hours of equilibration and 96.9% to 99.4% of AR after 48 hours (Tables
15 to 18). In activated sludge solids test systems, the adsorption was
55.3% to 77.5% of AR after 2 hours and 79.2% to 87.6% of AR after 48
hours of equilibration (Tables 19-20). Steady state was apparent in all
test systems by the end of the study.
Material balance (balance of radioactivity) in the test systems with
solids after 48 hours of equilibration
was within 90.1% to 125% (Table 21). Some portion of the solids (clay
particles) could be retained on the walls of the test vessels after
removal of the solids. In this event, the amounts of radioactivity
extracted from the test vessels may include additional radioactivity
from these clay particles, e.g., in case of silt loam (TB-PF) soil. One
outlier (one replicate of sandy soil Speyer 2.1) was considered related
to inhomogeneity of this soil. The sandy soil Speyer 2.1 contained
mainly sand (88%) and only 10% of silt fraction. When solids were
transferred from the test vessel into glass tubes for centrifugation,
mainly the lighter silt fraction was removed while the heavier particles
(sand) remained in the test vessel. If the concentration of adsorbed
radioactivity in silt fraction was higher than in the sand fraction,
this would result in higher-than-expected radioactivity after extraction
and combustion of the solids.
Total recoveries of radioactivity in replicate control vessels were
82.6% and 105% of AR, respectively.
Adsorption distribution coefficients ( ads d K ) after achievement of
equilibrium (quasi-equilibrium) in the systems (48 hours of
equilibration) were 8.83×103 L/kg for Silt Loam (TB-PF) soil and
4.17×103 L/kg for Sandy (Speyer 2.1) soil (average values of two
replicates) (Table 22). The average value of ads
d K for Brandywine Creek sediment was slightly higher than those
observed for the soils (2.37×104 L/kg) and for Choptank River sediment
it was similar to that observed for sandy soil (5.89×103 L/kg).
The average values of ads d K calculated for activated sludge solids
test systems were lower than for the
soils and the sediments. They were similar for both activated sludge
solids (4.28×102 L/kg for Cambridge
WWTP and 6.20×102 L/kg for Denton WWTP) (Table 22).
Average organic carbon normalized adsorption coefficient ( ads OC K )
were similar for both soils (2.10×105 L/kg for Silt Loam (TB-PF) soil
and 5.49×105 L/kg for Sandy (Speyer 2.1) soil) (Table 22). The values
were higher for the sediments (7.17×106 L/kg for Brandywine Creek
sediment and 9.98×105 L/kg for Choptank River sediment). For activated
sludge solids, the ads OC K values were lower than for the soils and the
sediments, 1.29×103 L/kg for Cambridge WWTP and 2.09×103 L/kg for Denton
Relatively low solubility of DBDPEthane in aqueous solutions, strong
sorption of this compound by
all tested solids as well as by the walls of all types of the test
vessels resulted in very low concentration of the test substance in the
aqueous phase (Tables 15 to 21). Concentrations
of [14C] DBDPEthane in solutions evenat
adsorption equilibrium (quasi-equilibrium) were very low and performing
a desorption kinetics test, where solution concentrations should be
lower than in the adsorption test, was impractical. Similar reasons
precluded obtaining complete adsorption and desorprtion isotherms.
Table 5. Selected properties of the soils
Table 6. Selected properties of the sediments
Table 7. Selected properties of the activated sludge solids.
AS-043013 – Cambridge WWTP
AS-050613 – Denton WWTP
Table 8. Soil moisture content
(Average of 3 replicates)
Silt Loam (TB-PF)
Sandy (Speyer #2.1)
Table 9. Sediment moisture content
Brandywine Creek (BC-082113)
Choptank River (CR-082113)
Table 10. Recovery of radioactivity in the aqueous phase after 24 -hr
equilibration of [14C]DBDPEthane in aqueous 0.01 M CaCl2
solutions in the test vessels
(% of applied radioactivity
Fisherbrand polypropylene tube (50 mL)
Teflon Oak Ridge tube (20 mL)
Stainless Steel Vessel (500 mL)
Erlenmeyer Flask (250 mL)
Pyrex flass tube ( 25 mm X 150 mm)
Glass Wheaton bottle (500 mL)
Table 11. Recovery of radioactivity in the aqueous phase after
equilibration of 14C DBDPEthane in Aqueous 0.01M CaCl2 in Wheaton glass
500 mL bottles
Test Vessel Identification
Period of equilibration
Table 12. Effect of processing on the recovery of [14C]
DBDPEthane dissolved in aqueous 0.01M CaCl2
Test Vessel ID
Recovery (%) of found before each kind of processing
Table 13. Distribution of radioactivity after equilibration of [14C]
DBDPEthane in aqueous 0.01 M CaCl2 solutions in 500 mL glass
Recovery (%) of Applied Radioactivity (AR)
Table 14. Recovery of radioactivity in the aqueous phase of the controls
in adsorption kinetics test.
[14C] DBDPEthane concentration in the aqueous phase (ug/L)
Recovery of radioactivity in the aqueous phase
(% of applied radioactivity)
Table 15. Apparent kinetics of DBDPEthane adsorption by silt loam
concentration in the
Aqueous phase (ug/L)
Table 16. Apparent kinetics of DBDPEthane adsorption by sandy (Speyer
Table 17. Apparent kinetics of DBDPEthane adsorption by sandy loam
(Brandywine River) sediment.
Apparent kinetics of DBDPEthane adsorption by sandy (Choptank River)
Table 19. Apparent kinetics of DBDPEthane adsorption by Cambridge WWTP
activated sludge solids.
Table 20. Apparent kinetics of DBDPEthane adsorption by Denton WWTP
activated sludge solids.
Table 21. Distribution of radioactivity in the test systems after 48 hrs
Recovery (% of applied amount)*
Silt loam (TB-PF)
Sand (Speyer 2.1)
Sandy (Choptank River)
Activated sludge solids
*calculated based on radioactivity
Table 22. Apparent adsorption distribution coefficients of DBDPEthane
after 48 hr equilibrium.
Adsorption characteristics of 1,2-Bis[pentabromophenyl]ethane, [Phenyl-
14C[U]] ([14C]-decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPEthane) were determined on
two representative soils, two sediments, and two activated sludge
solids. Concentrations of the test substance were determined based on
radioactivity by liquid scintillation counting (LSC).
Preliminary work was conducted to assess adsorption of the test
substance to six types of test vessels as
well as applicability of a filtration/centrifugation separation
processes of potential use in the definitive
adsorption study. Pyrex® glass tubes, Erlenmeyer glass flasks, Teflon
Oak Ridge tubes, Fisherbrand®
polypropylene centrifuge tubes, Wheaton 500-mL glass bottles, and
stainless steel vessels were screened for adsorption of [14C]
DBDPEthane. Losses of [14C] DBDPEthane from the aqueous phase occurred
in all vessel types. The highest recoveries were observed in Wheaton
500-mL glass bottles, which were selected for the definitive study.
Filtration of solutions through 0.2-μm pore size membrane filter
resulted in losses of 84% to 94% of [14C] DBDPEthane. Centrifugation was
selected as the method for separation of the solids from the liquid
phase in the definitive test.
The definitive adsorption kinetic test was performed with a silt loam
soil, a sandy soil, sediments derived
from two waterways, and activated sludge solids derived from two
wastewater treatment plants. The test was performed at a solids to
liquid ratio of 1:100. Equilibration of [14C] DBDPEthane with each soil,
sediment, and activated sludge solid resulted in a rapid decrease of
test material concentration in the aqueous phase and an increase in the
calculated adsorption. From 93.3% to 98.8% of applied radioactivity (AR)
was adsorbed by the soils and sediments after 2 hours of equilibration
and 96.9% to 99.4% of AR after 48 hours. Activated sludge solids
adsorbed 55.3% to 77.5% of AR after 2 hours and 79.2% to 87.6% of AR
after 48 hours. Steady state (quasi-equilibrium plateau) was observed in
all test systems by the end of the study.
Adsorption distribution coefficients (Kd ) were calculated based on
concentrations of the test substance in the aqueous and solid phases at
equilibrium (quasi-equilibrium). Average (of two replicates) Kd were
8.83E+3 10for Silt Loam soil, 4.17E+3 for Sandy soil, 2.37E+4
for sandy loam (Brandywine Creek) sediment, and 5.89E+3 for sandy
(Choptank River) sediment. Testing with activated sludge solids (ASS)
provided the Kd values 4.28E+2 for Cambridge WWTP ASS and 6.20E+2for
Denton WWTP ASS.
Average Koc (L/kg) values were 2.10E+5 and 5.49E+5 for
the soils, 7.17E+6 and 9.98E+5 for the sediments, and 1.29E+3 and
2.09E+3 for the activated sludge solids.
Low solubility of DBDPEthane in the aqueous phase and strong adsorption
of this compound by all tested solids as well as by the test vessel
walls resulted in very low concentrations of the test substance in the
aqueous phase. Performing a desorption kinetics test of DBDPEthane was
not practical. Similar reasons precluded complete adsorption and
desorprtion isotherms in this project. Therefore, the above Kd and Koc
values can be taken as appropriate estimates of the adsorption
properties of this test substance.
An Estimated value based on chemical structure was reported to be :
key study revealed adsorption coefficients to soil between 428 and 23700
L/kg. The absorption coefficient was strongly related to the organic
carbon content and decreased with increasing organic C. A Value od
23.700 is adequate for a low organic carbon content of the soil.
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