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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods

Administrative data

Endpoint:
toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
May 6 2003 to July 1, 2003
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study performed according to international guidelines and GLPs using commercial product as test article and published in the literature.

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2003
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Terrestrial toxicity evaluation of decabromodiphenyl ethane on organisms from three trophic levels
Author:
Hardy et al.
Year:
2011
Bibliographic source:
Ecotoxicol Envirohn Saf 74(4):703-10.
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Results of terrestrial and aquatic studies on the brominated flame retardant, decabromodipehnyl ethane, a.k.a. Ethane 1,2 bis(pentabromophenyl)
Author:
Hardy et al.
Year:
2009
Bibliographic source:
SETAC Annual Meeting, Nov 2009, New Orleans, LA
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Environmental Risk Evaluation Report: 1,1'-(Ethane-1,2-diyl)bis[pentabromobenzene] (CAS no. 84852-53-9)
Author:
Dungey SM, Akintoye L
Year:
2007
Bibliographic source:
http://publications.environment-agency.gov.uk/epages/eapublications.storefront/48771dd8022bcfe8273fc0a8029606a9/Search/Run

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 850.6200 (Earthworm Subchronic Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 207 (Earthworm, Acute Toxicity Tests)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 222 (Earthworm Reproduction Test (Eisenia fetida/Eisenia andrei))
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Test material form:
solid: particulate/powder
Remarks:
migrated information: powder
Details on test material:
98.34 % Decabromodiphenyl ethane
1.66 % Nonabromodiphenyl ethane

Sampling and analysis

Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Soil samples were collected on days 0, 28 and 56 for analytical confirmation of DBDPEthane test concentrations. The day 28 and 56 samples were composite samples of each treatment level. Homogeneity was determined for the low and high dose replicates (top, middle, bottom of container) just prior to test initiation.

Test substrate

Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Soils were mixed in a rotary mixer for at least 24 hours after addition of the test article, hydrated to 60% of their water holding capacity (WHC) with deionized water, and re-mixed to a uniform consistency. Approximately 615 g of soil (i.e., 500 g dry soil) was added to each replicate.

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Eisenia fetida
Animal group:
annelids
Details on test organisms:
Eisenia fetida (Vicker’s Farms, Orlando, FL) were from a synchronous population and no greater than four weeks apart in age.

Study design

Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
artificial soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
56 d
Remarks:
28 d for survival; 56 d for reproduction
Post exposure observation period:
no

Test conditions

Test temperature:
18.8 to 20.3 degrees C
pH:
Day 0: 6.6 to 6.7; Day 56: 6.0 to 6.6
Moisture:
Day O: 21.9 to 22.7%; Day 28: 33.0 to 34.6%; Day 56: 33.5 to 37.5%
Details on test conditions:
Photoperiod: 16 hr light: 8hr dark
Light Intensity: 463 to 492 lux
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: 0, 313, 625, 1250, 2500, 5000 mg/kg dry soil
Measured:
Reference substance (positive control):
no

Results and discussion

Effect concentrationsopen allclose all
Key result
Duration:
28 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
3 720 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks:
28 d
Key result
Duration:
56 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1 970 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Details on results:
DBDPEthane was not detected in the control soils from the earthworm study (
On day 0 and at test termination, the pH of soils ranged from 6.6 to 6.7 and 6.0 to 6.6, respectively. At initiation, soil moisture ranged from 21.9 to 22.7% of the dry weight; the percent moisture at 60% of the soil’s water holding capacity was 23%. After 28 days, soil moisture ranged from 33.0 to 34.6%. At test termination, moisture ranged from 33.5 to 37.5% of the dry weight. Temperatures recorded with the electronic data logger ranged from 18.8 to 20.3°C throughout the test. The 56-d average temperature of the water bath was 19.8 ± 0.1°C. The light intensity ranged from 463 to 692 lux.
Exposure to soils containing DBDPEthane for 28 d had no adverse effect on mortality (e.g. <10% effect), burrowing or avoidance behaviors. The EC10 and EC50 for survival were estimated greater than the highest concentration tested. No abnormal burrowing or avoidance behaviors were observed during the first 60 minutes of testing. After 28 d of exposure, the percent mortality in the adult earthworms was 0, 0, 2, 0, 0, and 0 in the control, 231, 440, 761, 1,910 and 3,720 mg/kg dry soil groups, respectively (Table 1). One out of 10 worms in one of the four replicates at 440 mg/kg soil was not found, and considered dead. All live earthworms were normal in appearance and behavior. The control worms gained an average of 1.92 g/replicate or 42% in replicate mass during the initial 28 d. The mean replicate weight gain in the treatment groups ranged from 1.77 to 2.27 g or 39 to 48% in replicate mass over the initial 28 d. No concentration dependent response in weight gain was observed.

Reproductive output in the controls ranged from 31 to 76 juvenile worms/replicate with an average of 44 juveniles/replicate, which was within acceptable limits. The percent coefficient of variation (%CV) for the control data was 37% with the reproductive data from the E replicate a statistical outlier. When these data were removed, the calculated %CV was 26%. However, the inclusion or exclusion of these data did not alter the NOEC. Therefore, the data reported and the statistical parameters are inclusive of this control replicate. The average reproduction for the treatment groups were 62, 45, 62, 48 and 18 juveniles/replicate for the 231, 440, 761, 1,910 and 3,720 mg/kg groups, respectively. Reproduction at the highest dose level was statistically lower from the control group (p<0.05).

Exposure to DBDEthane did not adversely affect (i.e., >10% effect) earthworm survival, and the 28-d survival NOEC was 3,720 mg/kg dry soil (measured) or 5,000 mg/kg dry soil (nominal), the highest dose tested, with the EC10 and EC50 > 3,720 mg/kg dry soil. The 56-d reproduction NOEC and LOEC were 1,970 and 3,720 mg kg dry soil, respectively. The estimated 28-d reproduction EC10 was 1,860 mg/kg dry soil. The estimated 28-reproduction EC50 was 3,180 mg/kg dry soil, the highest dose tested.



Reported statistics and error estimates:
Earthworm data was analyzed using SAS for Windows, Relase 6.12 and ToxCalcTM version 5.0 (p<0.05). The NOEC for earthworm survival data was determined using Fisher’s exact test. A Hochberg adjustment was used to control the experiment-wise error rate for the Fisher’s test. The reproduction NOEC value was estimated using a one-way analysis of variance and a one-tailed Dunnet’s test. A Shapiro-Wilk’s and Levene’s tests were performed to determine data normality and homogeneity of the treatment variances. The reproduction data exhibited normality and homogeneity of variance, and a parametric analysis was performed on the untransformed data. DBDPEthane exposure did not adversely effect (i.e., >10% effect) survival, and the EC10 and EC50 for survival were estimated greater than the highest concentration tested. The reproduction data did not display a strong concentration response curve, and non-linear interpolation was utilized to estimate the EC10 and EC50 concentrations for reproduction. The alpha level, p<=0.05, was used for all tests.

Any other information on results incl. tables

Table 1. Measured Soil Concentrations of Saytex 8010 During an Exposure of the Earthworm (Eisenia fetida).

Nominal

Concentration

(mg/kg dry soil)

Measured Concentration as mg/kg dry soil

(% of Nominal)

Mean

Measured Concentration

As mg/kg dry soil

(% of Nominal)

Day 0

Day 28

Day 56

0

313

625

1250

2500

5000

<MQLa

289 (92)

546 (87)

1020 (82)

2210 (88)

4280 (86)

<MQLa

227 (73)

448 (72)

516c(41)

1760 (70)

3330 (67)

<MQLb

178 (57)

326 (52)

746 (60)

1750 (70)

3560 (71)

<MQL

231 (74)

440 (70)

761 (61)

1910 (76)

3720 (74)

QC Fortifications

Low – 299 mg/kg

High – 5410 mg/kg

High 5430 – mg/kg

High – 5940 mg/kg

 

282 (94)

4740 (88)

--d

--d

 

 

235 (79)

--d

4620 (85)

--d

 

217 (73)

--d

--d

5420 (91)

 

Table 2. Measured Soil Concentrations of Saytex 8010 within the Homogeneity Samples.

Nominal

Concentration

(mg/kg dry soil)

Measured Concentration as mg/kg dry soil

(% of Nominal)

Mean

Measured Concentration

As mg/kg dry soil

(% of Nominal)

Top

Middle

Bottom

313

5000

281 (90)

4220 (84)

293 (94)

4030 (81)

297 (95)

4300 (86)

290 (8.33); CV = 3%

4180 (139); CV = 3%

QC Fortifications

Low – 299 mg/kg

High – 5220 mg/kg

 

279 (93)

4210 (81)

 

 

 

Table 3. Mortality and Behavioral Observations During the Adult Earthworm Exposure to Saytex 8010.

Mean

Measured

Concentration

(mg/kg dry soil)

Repetition

Day 28

Mortalitya

(% Mortality)

Day 28

Observations

Treatment

% Mortality

O

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

10N

10N

10N

10N

10N

10N

10N

10N

0

231

A

B

C

D

0

0

0

0

10N

10N

11N

10N

0

440

A

B

C

D

0

0

0

1(10)

10N

10N

10N

9N, 1NF

2

761

A

B

C

D

0

0

0

0

10N

10N

10N

10N

0

1910

A

B

C

D

0

0

0

0

10N

10N

10N

10N

0

3720

A

B

C

D

0

0

0

0

10N

10N

10N

10N

0

Table 4. Worm Weights Measured During the Adult Earthworm Exposure to Saytex 8010.

Mean

Measured

Concentration

(mg/kg dry soil)

Repetition

Initial

Replicate

Weight (g)

Final

Replicate

Weight (g)a

Weight

Change per

Replicate (g)

Mean

Weight

Change per

Treatment (g)

% Weight

Change per

Treatment

O

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

4114

4571

4567

4852

5253

4410

4629

3735

5585

6650

6598

6891

7311

6642

5554

6242

1.471

2.079

2.031

2.039

2.058

2.232

0.925

2.507

1918

42

231

A

B

C

D

4999

4080

5093

4783

7286

5702

6001

7184

2.287

1.622

0.908

2.401

1805

38

440

A

B

C

D

5041

4164

5199

4521

7389

6340

6303

6899

2.348

2.176

1.104

2.378

2002

42

761

A

B

C

D

4827

5127

4876

4072

7647

6898

7032

6426

2.820

1.771

2.156

2.354

2275

48

1910

A

B

C

D

4866

4336

4445

4749

7574

6303

5183

6418

2.708

1.967

0.738

1.669

1771

39

3720

A

B

C

D

4278

4292

4130

4027

6170

6564

7123

4666

1.892

2.272

2.993

0.639

1949

47

Table 5. Reproduction During the Earthworm Exposure to Saytex 8010.

Mean

Measured

Concentration

(mg/kg dry soil)

Repetition

Number of

Surviving

Adult

Worms

Number of

Juvenile

Worms

Average

Reproductiona

O

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

46

32

31

36

76

31

59

39

44

(CV = 37%)

231

A

B

C

D

10

10

10

10

33

56

68

92

62

440

A

B

C

D

10

10

10

10

63

42

15b

29

45

761

A

B

C

D

10

10

10

10

58

90

49

49

62

1910

A

B

C

D

10

10

10

10

55

63

39

33

48

3720

A

B

C

D

10

10

10

10

21

27

9

13

18*

aThe mean number of juveniles produced is calculated as the summation of the number of juveniles per container divided by the number of replicate containers. These values were rounded to two significant figure.

bThis sample was spilled during the juvenile enumeration and was not used in the calculation of the mean.

*Statistically significant (p<0.05) reduction in treatment reproductive output as compared to the control value.

Table 6. Effect Concentrations (EC10, EC50). No-Observed-Effect (NOEC), and Lowest-Observed-Effect (LOEC) Concentrations During the Earthworm Exposure to Saytex 8010.

Biological

Parameter

Statistical Endpoints

LC10 or EC10

(95% CIa)

LC50 or EC50

(95% CIa)

NOEC

LOEC

28-day Survival

(mg/kg dry soil)

Reproduction

(mg/kg dry soil)

>3720 (N/Cb)

 

1860 (0 – 2390)

>3720 (N/C)

 

3180 (N/C)

3720

 

1910

>3720

 

3720

aCI = Confidence Interval

bN/C = Could not be calculated

Table 7. Soil pH and Moisture Measurements Taken During the Earthworm Exposure to Saytex 8010.

Mean

Measured Soil

Concentration

(mg/kg dry soil)

Day 0a

pH

Day 56b

pH

Day 0

% Moisturec

Day 28

% Moisturec

Day 56

% Moisturec

0

231

440

761

1910

3720

6.7

6.7

6.7

6.6

6.7

6.6

6.6

6.1

6.0

6.0

6.2

6.3

22.1

21.9

22.3

22.2

22.7

22.4

33.3

33.0

33.4

34.6

33.5

33.5

37.5

34.2

34.8

34.4

33.8

33.5

apH recorded from parent soil sample

bpH recorded from replicate A soil sample

cSoil moisture of the parent soil at initiation and from a composite sample on days 28 and 56. The soil moisture was measured as a percentage of the dry soil weight. At 60% of the maximum water holding capacity the percent moisture was 23%.

Table 8. Light Measurements Taken During the Earthworm Exposure to Saytex 8010.

Study Day

Experimental

Position

Treatment

Replicate

Light Intensity

(lux)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

7

12

18

19

24

22

25

27

Level 4D

Level 1A

Control F

Control D

Level 5C

Level 1D

Control C

Level 2D

Level 3B

692

563

628

463

558

527

472

506

470

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Exposure to DBDEthane did not adversely affect (i.e., >10% effect) earthworm survival, and the 28-d survival NOEC was 3,720 mg/kg dry soil (measured) or 5,000 mg/kg dry soil (nominal), the highest dose tested, with the EC10 and EC50 > 3,720 mg/kg dry soil. The 56-d reproduction NOEC and LOEC were 1,970 and 3,720 mg kg dry soil, respectively. The estimated 28-d reproduction EC10 was 1,860 mg/kg dry soil. The estimated 28-reproduction EC50 was 3,180 mg/kg dry soil, the highest dose tested.
Executive summary:

Exposure to DBDEthane did not adversely affect (i.e., >10% effect) earthworm survival, and the 28-d survival NOEC was 3,720 mg/kg dry soil (measured) or 5,000 mg/kg dry soil (nominal), the highest dose tested, with the EC10 and EC50 > 3,720 mg/kg dry soil. The 56-d reproduction NOEC and LOEC were 1,970 and 3,720 mg kg dry soil, respectively. The estimated 28-d reproduction EC10 was 1,860 mg/kg dry soil. The estimated 28-reproduction EC50 was 3,180 mg/kg dry soil, the highest dose tested.