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Biodegradation in water

Biodegradation study was conducted for 14 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts (CAS no.61789-40-0) (Xiao-Xia Sun et. al., 2004). Natural seawater obtained fromIncheon Harbor, Korea was used as a test inoculum for the study. Seawater was filtered through Whatman GF/F glass fiber membrane firstly in order to remove the suspended particulate matter and the zooplankton that might prey upon the marine bacteria, and thus affect the biodegradation process of the surfactants.500 ml flask was used as a test vessel for the study.Initial test substance concentration used for the study was 100 mg/l.Two hundred milliliters filtered seawater was transferred to sterile 500 mL flasks and the surfactants were added, respectively, to give a final concentration of 100 mg/L. Triplicate flasks were set for each group. The flasks were shaken twice every day.The percentage degradation of test chemical 1-Propanaminium, 3 -amino-N-(carboxymethyl)- N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner saltswas determined to be 50 and >90% after 1 and 5 days, respectively. Thus, based on percentage degradation, 1 -Propan aminium, 3 -amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner saltsis considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

Biodegradation in water and sediment

Estimation Programs Interface (2018) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound 1-Propanaminium, 3 -amino-N-(carboxy methyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts (CAS No. 61789 -40 -0). If released in to the environment, 16.5% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts in water is estimated to be 15 days (360 hrs). The half-life (15 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to low whereas the half-life period of 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts in sediment is estimated to be 135 days (3240 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.403%), indicates that 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts is not persistent in sediment.

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts (CAS No. 61789 -40 -0) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (2018). If released into the environment, 83.1% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts in soil is estimated to be 30 days (720 hrs). Based on this half-life value of 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

Additional information

Biodegradation in water

Various experimental key and supporting studies for the target compound 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts (CAS No. 61789-40-0) were reviewed for the biodegradation end point which are summarized as below:

 

In an experimental key study from peer reviewed journal (Xiao-Xia Sun et. al., 2004),biodegradation experiment was conducted for 14 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts (CAS no.61789-40-0). Natural seawater obtained fromIncheon Harbor, Korea was used as a test inoculum for the study. Seawater was filtered through Whatman GF/F glass fiber membrane firstly in order to remove the suspended particulate matter and the zooplankton that might prey upon the marine bacteria, and thus affect the biodegradation process of the surfactants.500 ml flask was used as a test vessel for the study.Initial test substance concentration used for the study was 100 mg/l.Two hundred milliliters filtered seawater was transferred to sterile 500 mL flasks and the surfactants were added, respectively, to give a final concentration of 100 mg/L. Triplicate flasks were set for each group. The flasks were shaken twice every day.The percentage degradation of test chemical 1-Propanaminium, 3 -amino-N-(carboxymethyl)- N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner saltswas determined to be 50 and >90% after 1 and 5 days, respectively. Thus, based on percentage degradation, 1 -Propan aminium, 3 -amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner saltsis considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

 

Another biodegradation study was conducted for 30 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts (CAS no.61789-40-0) (handbook and secondary source, 2008). The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 301 D "Ready Biodegradability: Closed Bottle Test" under aerobic conditions.Activated sludge obtained frommunicipal sewage treatment plant effluent was used as a test inoculum for the study. Initial test substance concentration used for the study was 5 mg/l.The percentage degradation of test chemical1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner saltswas determined to be 84% by COD parameter in 30 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation,1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts is considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

 

In a supporting study, biodegradation study was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts (CAS no.61789-40-0) (handbook and secondary source IUCLID dataset, 2008). The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 301 E "Ready biodegradability: Modified OECD Screening Test"under aerobic conditions. Activated sludge obtained from municipal sewage treatment plant effluent was used as a test inoculum for the study. Initial test substance concentration used for the study was 10 mg/l based on DOC (dissolved organic carbon).The percentage degradation of test chemical1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner saltswas determined to be 90 and 100% by DOC removal parameter in 14 and 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation,1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts is considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

 

Additional biodegradation study (from secondary source (2000) and handbook) was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts(CAS no.61789-40-0). The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 302 B "Inherent biodegradability: Modified Zahn–Wellens Test"under aerobic conditions.Activated sludgewas used as a test inoculum for the study. Initial test substance concentration used for the study was 250 mg/l.The percentage degradation of test chemical1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner saltswas determined to be 84 and 99% by COD parameter in 7 and 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts is considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

 

In an another supporting study from handbook (2008) and secondary source (IUCLID dataset, 2000),biodegradation experiment was conducted for 42 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts(CAS no.61789-40-0). The study was performed according toother guideline Anaerobic test with digester sludge: "Guidelines for Screening of Chemicals for Anaerobic Biodegradability."under anaerobic conditions. Other bacteria (digester sludge) obtained frommunicipal sewage treatment plant was used as a test inoculum for the study. Initial test substance concentration used for the study was 50 mg/l.The percentage degradation of test chemical 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts was determined to be ranges from 25.1 to 60.9% by usingevolution of CO2, CH4 and dissolved inorganic carbon % of organic carbon of test substanceas a parameter after 42 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation,1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts is considered to be inherently biodegradable in nature.

 

Biodegradation study from secondary source (2017) was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts (CAS no.61789-40-0). The study was performed according to OECD Guide-line 301 D "Ready Biodegradability: Closed Bottle Test" under aerobic conditions at a temperature of 20°C. Effluent of stp Hochdahl treating predominantly domestic sewage was used as a test inoculum for the study. Initial test substance concentration used for the study was 2 and 5 mg/l, respectively. The test substance was measured for ready biodegradability in a closed bottle system. Aliquots of stock solution at concentrations of 2 and 5 mg/l were transferred to a mineral nutrient solution, inoculated with purification plant effluent and poured, without air bubbles, into bottles of known volume. The closed bottles were incubated at a constant 20 ± 1 °C in the dark or in diffused light and the biochemical oxygen demand of the test substance was measured using the Winkler Titration Method. Biodegradability was calculated as %BOD/ThOD or %BOD/COD. As a reference substance, an inoculated nutrient solution containing inoculant consumption control (IZK) and sodium benzoate was tested as well. Reference substance Benzoic acid, sodium salt undergoes 75 and 93% degradation after 7 and 21 days, respectively. The percentage degradation of test chemical1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts was determined to be 44, 82 and 93% by BOD parameter in 5, 15 and 28 days, respectively. 14 day window criterion was fulfilled. Thus, based on percentage degradation, 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts is considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

 

Additional biodegradation study was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts (CAS no.61789-40-0) (secondary source, 2017). The study was performed according to OECD Guide-line 301 D "Ready Biodegradability: Closed Bottle Test" under aerobic conditions at a temperature of 21°C. Activated sludge, domestic of 2 mg/l obtained from aeration stage of the Severn Trent Plc sewage treatment plant at Belper, Derbyshire, treating predominantly domestic sewage was used as a test inoculum for the study. Test inoculum was homogenised for 10 minutes, allowed to settle and the supernatant filtered through Whatman GFA filter paper (first 200 ml discarded). BOD bottles (darkened glass) with ground glass stoppers of 250-300 ml was used as a test vessel for the study. Standard culture medium was used as a test medium for the study. Experiment was performed in duplicates. COD was determined using a semi-microsample digestion (Hach) technique, Dissolved oxygen was determined using a Yellow Springs BOD Probe (Model 54). Closed vessels used: 250-300 ml BOD bottles (darkened glass) with ground glass stoppers. Measurement of dissolved oxygen at 0, 5, 15 and 28 days was carried outby means of a Yellow Springs BOD Probe (Model 54). Chemical Oxygen Demand was determined using a semi-micro sample digestion (Hach) technique. Reaction vials containing premeasured amounts of sulphuric acid, potassium dichromate, silver catalyst plus 2 ml water sample were heated at 150 °C for 2 hours and the COD values read from a Hach DR/2000 Direct Reading Spectrophotometer. Benzoic acid, sodium salt (3 mg/l) was used as a reference substance for the study. Control system includes both non-inoculated and inoculated culture medium. Reference substance Benzoic acid, sodium salt undergoes 73 and 93% degradation after 5 and 15 days, respectively. The percentage degradation of test chemical1-Propanaminium, 3 -amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-di methyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts was determined to be 44, 82 and 93% by BOD parameter in 5, 15 and 28 days, respectively. Thus, based on percentage degradation,1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts is considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

 

For the test chemical 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts, biodegradation study was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts (CAS no.61789-40-0). The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 301 D "Ready Biodegradability: Closed Bottle Test" under aerobic conditions at a temperature of 20°C. Effluent of stp Hochdahl treating predominantly domestic sewage was used as a test inoculum for the study. Initial test substance concentration used for the study was 2 and 5 mg/l, respectively.The test substance was measured for ready biodegradability in a closed bottle system. Aliquots of stock solution at concentrations of 2 and 5 mg/l were transferred to a mineral nutrient solution, inoculated with purification plant effluent and poured, without air bubbles, into bottles of known volume. The closed bottles were incubated at a constant 20 ± 1 °C in the dark or in diffused light and the biochemical oxygen demand of the test substance was measured using the Winkler Titration Method. Biodegradability was calculated as %BOD/ThOD or %BOD/COD. As a reference substance, an inoculated nutrient solution containing inoculant consumption control (IZK) and sodium benzoate was tested as well. Reference substance Benzoic acid, sodium salt undergoes 75 and 93% degradation after 7 and 21 days, respectively. The percentage degradation of test chemical1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner saltswas determined to be 44, 82 and 93% by BOD parameter in 5, 15 and 28 days, respectively. 14 day window criterion was fulfilled. Thus, based on percentage degradation,1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts is considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

 

In a supporting study from secondary source (2017), biodegradation experiment was conducted for 35 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts. The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 301 B "Ready Biodegradability: Modified Sturm Test (CO2 evolution)" under aerobic conditions at a temperature of 21±1°C. Activated sludge was used as a test inoculum for the study. 5L-carboys was used as a test vessel for the study. Aniline (20 mg DOC/l) was used as a reference substance for the study. Three liters of mineral nutrient solution were added to each of five, 5-l carboys. To two carboys were added test substance (equivalent concentrations to achieve 10 and 20 mg organic carbon/l), two carboys were maintained as blank test flasks, and one carboy was added reference substance (aniline) at 20 mg organic carbon/l. Inoculum was added to all carboys (30 ml containing 10(8) cells/ml), and the carboys were aerated with CO2-free air (30 - 50 ml/minute) with the effluent air passing through a series of CO2 traps containing Ba(OH)2. The CO2 produced by the degradation of the test substance by the inoculum was subsequently trapped in the Ba(OH)2 solution. The amount of CO2 produced was determined by titrating the Ba(OH)2 with HCl. Biodegradation was determined in two manners. First, biodegradation was calculated as the amount of CO2 collected in the trapping solution divided by the amount of CO2 that could theoretically have been produced based on the amount of carbon (as test substance) added to the test vessels. Second, biodegradation was measured as the amount of dissolved organic carbon removed from the test vessels. Reference substance Aniline undergoes 82% degradation after 35 days, respectively. Evolution of CO2 in the 10 mg organic carbon/l treatment was 71 and 71% at days 29 and 35, respectively. Evolution of CO2 in the 20 mg organic carbon/l treatment was 57 and 58% at days 29 and 35, respectively. Percent removal of dissolved organic carbon in the 10 mg organic carbon/l treatment was 88.5 and 93% at 29 days and 35 days, respectively. Percent removal of dissolved organic carbon in the 20 mg organic carbon/l treatment was 81 and 90%, respectively. Thus, based on percentage degradation, 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts is considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

 

Another supporting biodegradation study from secondary source (IUCLID dataset, 2000) was conducted for 20 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts(CAS no.61789-40-0). The study was performed according toDirective 84/449/EEC, C.5 "Biotic degradation – modified Sturm test"under aerobic conditions.Initial test substance concentration used for the study was 20 mg/l.The percentage degradation of test chemical 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts was determined to be 100% after 20 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation,1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts is considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

 

Additional biodegradation study was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts (CAS no.61789-40-0) (secondary source, 2000). The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 302 B "Inherent biodegradability: Modified Zahn–Wellens Test" under aerobic conditions. Activated sludge (domestic)was used as a test inoculum for the study. Initial test substance concentration used for the study was 500 mg/l. The percentage degradation of test chemical 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts was determined to be 97% by DOC removal or COD parameter in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts is considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

 

On the basis of above overall results for target chemical 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts (from peer reviewed journal, handbook and secondary source), it can be concluded that the test substance 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts can be considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

Biodegradation in water and sediment

Estimation Programs Interface (2018) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound 1-Propanaminium, 3 -amino-N-(carboxy methyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts (CAS No. 61789 -40 -0). If released in to the environment, 16.5% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts in water is estimated to be 15 days (360 hrs). The half-life (15 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to low whereas the half-life period of 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts in sediment is estimated to be 135 days (3240 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.403%), indicates that 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts is not persistent in sediment.

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts (CAS No. 61789 -40 -0) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (2018). If released into the environment, 83.1% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts in soil is estimated to be 30 days (720 hrs). Based on this half-life value of 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

On the basis of available information, the test substance 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-coco acyl derivs., hydroxides, inner salts can be considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.