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Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Description of key information

Information about the long-term toxicity of chloroform to aquatic invertebrates is available for two species, Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia. However, only two studies on Daphnia magna can be considered as valid. The most reliable study on Daphnia magna exposed to chloroform for 16 days established a NOEC of 6.3 mg/L for reproductive endpoints (Kühn et al. 1989).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC10, LC10 or NOEC for freshwater invertebrates:
6.3 mg/L

Additional information

Cowgill and Milazzo studied the long-term toxicity of chloroform to Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia in a static three-brood test (Cowgill and Milazzo 1991). For D. magna their NOEC value (10 days) was 120 mg/L based on mortality, brood size and total progeny, and for C. dubia their NOEC value (9 days) was 3.4 mg/L based on mortality. However, their test system did not account for the volatility of chloroform so that the results are considered as not reliable.

The study by Kühn et al. (1989) was carried out with D. magna according to official guidelines and was performed in a closed system with analytical monitoring of the chloroform concentrations in the test solutions and the losses during the test. The NOEC value (21 days) is 6.3 mg/L based on reproduction endpoints. A second study on D. magna found a slightly higher NOEC value (16 d) of 15 mg/L based on growth of test animals, which is an uncommon criterion for the determination of adverse effects.

Thus, the NOEC value of 6.3 mg/L determined by Kühn et al. (1989) for the long-term toxicity of chloroform to invertebrates, represented by Daphnia magna and based on reproductive endpoints, is taken for the risk assessment.