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Toxicological information

Acute Toxicity: oral

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
acute toxicity: oral
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study is in line with the relevant guideline studies (such as OECD Guideline No. 401) with acceptable restrictions.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
The acute toxicity of four trihalomethanes in male and female rats
Author:
Chu I, Secours V, Marino I, Villeneuve D
Year:
1980
Bibliographic source:
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 52, 351-353

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 401 (Acute Oral Toxicity)
GLP compliance:
no
Test type:
standard acute method
Limit test:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
Chloroform of purity > 99 % obtained from Caledon Chemicals, Georgetown, Ontario, Canada

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
Biobreeding Labs, Ottawa, Ontario, 150-200 g, acclimated for 1 week, temperature 21 +/- 2 °C, humidity 40-70 %, caged individually and allowed free access to food and water

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
corn oil
Details on oral exposure:
administration at a constant volume of 5 mL/kg, animals were fasted overnight before dose administration
Doses:
546, 765, 1071, 1500, 2100 mg/kg body weight
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10 males, 10 females
Control animals:
no
Details on study design:
To establish the dose levels to be used in the LD50 studies, groups of two animals were administered test compounds at 250 and 3000 mg/kg and the mortality data were recorded. Then, the main LD50 studies were carried out with doses of 546-2100 mg/kg using 10 female and 10 male rats. Clinical observations were made for 14 days after dosing and a postmortem examination was performed on animals which died during this period. All surviving animals were killed at the end of 14 days and subjected to gross pathologic examination.
Statistics:
Statistical analysis of data was carried out using one-way analysis of variance and the Student-Newman-Keuls test. LD50 values were calculated using the probit analysis (Finney 1952).

Results and discussion

Effect levelsopen allclose all
Sex:
male
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
908 mg/kg bw
95% CL:
750 - 1 082
Sex:
female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
1 117 mg/kg bw
95% CL:
843 - 1 514
Mortality:
See also Table 1: At the highest dose level, 4 males died within 24 hours after dosing and most animals were dead after 4 days post-administration. At lower doses animals died primarily on Day 3 to Day 4 post-administration.
Clinical signs:
Common clinical signs consisted of piloerection, sedation, flaccid muscle tone, ataxia, and prostration. Chloroform elicited dacryorrhea in some animals.
Body weight:
No changes in body weight
Gross pathology:
Increased relative weights of the liver and the kidneys. For lesions see Table 2
Other findings:
A clear trend towards increased cholesterol levels was seen in all treated animals. Inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase activities were seen in all treated groups. A significant decrease in the levels of liver proteins were observed in rats fed chloroform. Microsomal hydroxylase activity of female but not male rats was activated by administration of chloroform. A reduction in lymphocytes with significant decreased was noted in female rats. Decrease in haemoglobin and haematocrit values were observed in males and females fed chloroform.

Any other information on results incl. tables

Table 1: Mortality occurring in the acute oral toxicity study:

Dose (mg/kg)

Sex

Total animals dead*

Survival time (days after oral administration)

LD50 (mg/kg)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

546

Male

0

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

M:908(750-1082)

F:1117(843-1514)

Female

1

--

--

1

--

--

--

--

765

Male

5

1

--

1

1

2

--

--

Female

3

--

--

1

2

--

--

--

1071

Male

6

2

--

2

--

2

--

--

Female

6

--

2

2

--

--

2

--

1500

Male

9

--

--

5

1

2

1

--

Female

5

--

1

3

1

--

--

--

2100

Male

10

4

--

3

1

1

1

--

Female

9

--

--

4

5

--

--

--

*Animals dying before the end of the 14 day observation period

Table 2: Incidence of histological changes of rats which survived single oral doses of chloroform

Doses (mg/kg)

Liver

Kidneys

Males

Females

Males

Females

546

0/2

1/2

02

0/2

765

2/2

0/2

1/2

1/2

1071

--

0/2

--

2/2

1500

0/1

0/2

0/1

1/2

2100

--

0/1

--

0/1

Numbers denote: number of animals showing lesions/animals examined

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
Category 4 based on GHS criteria
Remarks:
Migrated information
Conclusions:
Due to the acute oral toxicity test in the rat chloroform is classified as harmful if swallowed.
Executive summary:

The acute oral toxicity of chloroform, solubilised in corn oil, was tested in female and male Sprague-Dawley rats (10 animals per dose group) in accordance with the OECD Guideline No. 401 with minor restrictions. Chloroform was administered at doses of 546, 765, 1071, 1500 and 2100 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage. Animals were then observed for 14 hours, clinical signs were noted and animals which were dying during the observation period or were killed after 14 days were submitted to necropsy and gross pathology. The mean LD50 values determined for male rats was 908 mg/kg body weight, that of female rats was 1117 mg/kg. Following the GHS classification system, chloroform on the basis of the present study is classified into Toxicity Category IV, receiving the hazard statement "harmful if swallowed".