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From the available data on the aquatic toxicity of chloroform, three long-term NOECs from species representing three trophic levels have been identified. These are:

Fish: NOEC (6 to 9 months): 1.463 mg/L (Oryzias latipes, Toussaint et al. 2001)

Invertebrates: NOEC (21 days): 6.3 mg/L (Daphnia magna, Kühn et al. 1989)

Algae: EC10 (72 hours): 3.61 mg/L (Chlamydomonas reinhardii, Brack and Rottler 1994)

The lowest NOEC value is that found for fish: 1.463 mg/L. The PNEC for the aquatic environment derived from this lowest NOEC by applying a factor of 10 is PNECaqua = 146 microgram/L.

From the available data on the toxicity of chloroform to microorganisms, the lowest effect level has been identified from the study of Blum and Speece (1991), which is 0.48 mg/L found for Nitrosomonas bacteria in the ammonium consumption inhibition test. The PNEC for microorganisms derived from the EC50 value by applying a factor of 10 is PNECmicroorganisms = 48 microgram/L.