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Toxicological information

Acute Toxicity: inhalation

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
acute toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study was carried out according to the OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals No. 412 and 413 which are describing tests for repeated dose inhalation toxicity and subchronic toxicity.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Acute and subchronic nhalation toxicity of chloroform in rats and mice
Author:
Kasai T, Nishizawa T, Arito H, Nagano K, Yamamoto S, Matsushima T, Kawamoto T
Year:
2002
Bibliographic source:
Journal of Occupational Health 44, 193-202

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: OECD Guidelines No. 412 and 413
GLP compliance:
no
Test type:
fixed concentration procedure
Limit test:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
Fischer 344/DuCrj
Sex:
male/female

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
inhalation: vapour
Type of inhalation exposure:
whole body
Vehicle:
other: unchanged (no vehicle)
Analytical verification of test atmosphere concentrations:
not specified
Duration of exposure:
6 h
Concentrations:
500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 8000 ppm (2.44, 4.88, 9.76, 19.52, 39.04 g/m3)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10 females, 10 males
Control animals:
yes
Details on study design:
exposure for 5 days/week, during 2 weeks

Results and discussion

Effect levels
Sex:
male/female
Dose descriptor:
other: NOEC
Effect level:
1 000 ppm
Exp. duration:
14 d
Remarks on result:
other: 6 h/day on 5 days/week
Mortality:
No mortality occurred at concentrations of 500 or 1000 ppm (see Table 1). All mice died on the first or second day of exposure to 2000 ppm or above.
Other findings:
Surviving males and females exposed to 500 and 1000 ppm had vacuolic changes in proximal tubules of the kidneys and in the central area of the liver, in addition to desquamation, atrophy and disarrangement of the olfactory epithelium and oedema of the lamina propria of the nasal cavity.

Any other information on results incl. tables

Table 1: Mortality occurring in the inhalation toxicity study. Numbers in brackets indicate the number of rats dying on specified days.

Exposure concentration

Rats

Male

Female

0 ppm

0

0

500 ppm

0

0

1000 ppm

0

0

2000 ppm

10

(9/1st)

(1/2nd)

10

(3/1st)

(2/2nd)

4000 ppm

10

(9/1st)

(1/2nd)

10

(9/1st)

(1/2nd)

8000 ppm

10

(10/1st)

10

(10/1st)

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Inhalation exposure of male and female Fisher 344/DuCrj rats to 1000 ppm chloroform vapours during 6 hours/day on 5 days during a period of two weeks did not cause any mortality.
Executive summary:

The inhalation toxicity of chloroform vapours to female and male Fisher 344/DuCrj rats was tested over a period of two weeks with exposures for 6 hours per day on five days per week. No mortality occurred at exposure levels of 500 or 1000 ppm, whereas all test animals died within 48 hours at exposure levels of 2000 ppm and above. Surviving males and females exposed to 500 and 1000 ppm had vacuolic changes in proximal tubules of the kidneys and in the central area of the liver, in addition to desquamation, atrophy and disarrangement of the olfactory epithelium and oedema of the lamina propria of the nasal cavity.