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Toxicological information

Basic toxicokinetics

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
basic toxicokinetics in vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Non-GLP, non-guideline animal experimental study, published in peer reviewed literature, minor restrictions in reporting but otherwise adequate for assessment.
Cross-reference
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
The role of toxicokinetics in xylene-induced ototoxicity in the rat and guinea pig
Author:
Gagnaire F, Marignac B, Blachere V, Grossman S and Langlais C
Year:
2007
Bibliographic source:
Toxicology 231, 147-158

Materials and methods

Objective of study:
toxicokinetics
Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
o-xylene
EC Number:
202-422-2
EC Name:
o-xylene
Cas Number:
95-47-6
Molecular formula:
C8H10
IUPAC Name:
o-xylene
Details on test material:
- Source: Acros, Geel, Belgium
- Purity: 99% (for all)
Radiolabelling:
no

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
male
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Iffa Credo, Saint-Germain-sur-l'Arbresle, France
- Age at study initiation: approx. 7 wk
- Housing: group housed, 4/cage in polypropylene cages with woodchip bedding
- Diet : UAR-Alimentation, Epinay-sur Orge, France, sterilised by gamma irradiation ad libitum
- Water : filtered tap water ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 6 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature: 22°C
- Humidity: 50-60%
- Photoperiod (lights on): 07.00 - 19.00 hr

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
olive oil
Details on exposure:
Each isomer dosed by gavage - single dose of 8.47 mmol/kg, dissolved in olive oil (dose volume 4 mL/kg bw).
Duration and frequency of treatment / exposure:
Single dose
Doses / concentrations
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
8.47 mmol/kg (899 mg/kg)
No. of animals per sex per dose / concentration:
60
Control animals:
no
Details on study design:
Blood and brain concentrations of ortho, meta and para-xylene (one isomer per experiment) determined in SD rats following a single oral dose of 8.47 mmol/kg bw. Results for o-xylene only are reported here. Comment: 8.47 mmol p-xylene / kg bw shown previously to cause histopathological lesions in the organ of Corti in rats whereas m- and o-xylenes ineffective (see Gagnaire and Langlais (2005) Arch. Toxicol. 79, 346-354).
Details on dosing and sampling:
- Tissues and body fluids sampled: blood (abdominal aorta), brain
- From how many animals: 6-8 per timepoint
- Time and frequency of sampling: 10, 20 and 30 min; 1, 2, 5, 8, 11, 15 and 24 hr
- Other: samples taken under deep anaesthesia (sodium pentobarbital) and stored frozen until analysis
- Method type(s) for identification: GC-FID
Statistics:
Elimination half-life was estimated during the linear phase post-treatment. Maximum blood and brain concentrations were compared by one-way ANOVA followed by Scheffe's multiple range test if results were significant.

Results and discussion

Toxicokinetic / pharmacokinetic studies

Toxicokinetic parametersopen allclose all
Toxicokinetic parameters:
Cmax: Blood: o-xylene = 39 µg/mL
Toxicokinetic parameters:
Cmax: Brain: o-xylene = 116 µg/g
Toxicokinetic parameters:
half-life 1st: Blood: o-xylene = 213 min
Toxicokinetic parameters:
half-life 1st: Brain: o-xylene = 238 min
Toxicokinetic parameters:
AUC: Blood: o-xylene = 28242
Toxicokinetic parameters:
AUC: Brain: o-xylene = 88083

Any other information on results incl. tables

Graphical data showed that o-xylene appeared rapidly in blood and brain, peaked after 2 hr, remained steady for 3 hr and then declined steadily over time. Levels in brain (Cmax, AUC) were around 3-fold greater than those for blood.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Blood and brain concentrations of o-xylene were determined in young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats following oral gavage administration of 8.47 mmol/kg. o-xylene appeared rapidly in blood and brain, peaked after 2 hr, remained steady for 3 hr and then declined steadily over time. Levels in brain (Cmax, AUC) were around 3-fold greater than those for blood.
Executive summary:

Blood and brain concentrations of o-xylene were determined in young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats following oral gavage administration of 8.47 mmol/kg. o-xylene appeared rapidly in blood and brain, peaked after 2 hr, remained steady for 3 hr and then declined steadily over time. Levels in brain (Cmax, AUC) were around 3-fold greater than those for blood.