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Guidance on Safe Use

Guidance on Safe Use

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Administrative data

First-aid measures

Eye contact: Immediately flush eyes with running water for at least 15 minutes, keeping eyelids open. Get medical
attention immediately.

Skin contact: Immediately wash exposed skin with soap and water. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash
clothing before reuse. Contaminated leather, particularly footwear, must be discarded. Note that
contaminated clothing may be a fire hazard. Get medical attention immediately.

Inhalation: If inhaled, remove to fresh air. Keep person warm and at rest. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. If not
breathing, give artificial respiration. Resuscitate using a mouth-to-mask with one-way valve or with Ambu
Bag. Get medical attention immediately. If symptoms of cyanide poisoning are evident, administer amyl
nitrate by inhalation for 15-30 seconds every minute. Immediately inject 10 ml of a 3% solution of sodium
nitrate intravenously over a period of 1 to 4 minutes.

Ingestion: Get immediate medical attention. Do not wait for symptoms to develop. Do not induce vomiting. If not
breathing, ensure clear airway and institute cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Avoid mouth to mouth
resuscitation. Use mouth to mask ventilation with one way valve to exhaust victim’s exhaled air away from
rescuer. If breathing is difficult, ensure clear airway and give oxygen. If symptomatic, treat as described
under Inhalation. If swallowed, rinse mouth with water (only if the person is conscious). Never give anything
by mouth to an unconscious person.

Notes to physician: Upon absorption and metabolism acetonitrile immediately begins a slow release of cyanide, which can
continue for several hours. The toxic effects and associated clinical signs of cyanide poisoning may therefore
be delayed. Take a blood sample in all cases for blood cyanide using fluoride/oxalate tube and chill
immediately and arrange urgent analysis. Blood cyanide levels will take some time to become available, and
are generally only useful as a retrospective indicator of exposure. Treatment decisions must therefore be
based on the clinical features of each individual case, without waiting for blood cyanide results. If the patient
is conscious and breathing normally, administration of oxygen is the only treatment necessary.

In a deteriorating clinical situation, with a patient’s conscious level decreasing, in addition to the need for
cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, consideration should be given to the use of a specific cyanide antidote
[dicobalt edetate (kelocyanor)]. THIS SPECIFIC ANTIDOTE IS DANGEROUS WHEN ADMINISTERED IN
THE ABSENCE OF SERIOUS CYANIDE POISONING.

One ampoule of dicobalt edetate (300mg) diluted in 20ml glucose solution is given by slow intravenous
injection, being careful to avoid extravasation. Constant pulse and blood pressure monitoring is required,
along with facilities for resuscitation, as sudden severe fall in blood pressure can occur during injection.
Treatment may be repeated if there is an inadequate response to the initial injection.

Fire-fighting measures

Extinguishing media (Suitable): In case of fire, use water fog, foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide extinguisher or spray.

Hazardous decomposition products: Decomposition products may include the following materials: carbon oxides (CO, CO2), nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2 etc.), Hydrogen cyanide (HCN).

Unusual fire/explosion hazards: Highly flammable liquid and vapour. Vapour may cause flash fire. Vapours may accumulate in low or confined areas or travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard.

Special fire-fighting procedures DO NOT FIGHT FIRE WHEN IT REACHES MATERIAL. Withdraw from fire and let it burn. Promptly isolate the scene by removing all persons from the vicinity of the incident if there is a fire. First move people out of line-of-sight of the scene and away from windows.

Protection of fire-fighters: Fire-fighters should wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) and full turnout gear.

Accidental release measures

Personal precautions: Immediately contact emergency personnel. Eliminate all ignition sources. Do not touch or walk through spilt material. Keep unnecessary personnel away. Follow all fire-fighting procedures. Use suitable protective equipment.

Environmental precautions and clean-up methods: If emergency personnel are unavailable, contain spilt material. For small spills, add absorbent (soil may be used in the absence of other suitable materials) and use a non-sparking or explosion-proof means to transfer material to a sealable, appropriate container for disposal. For large spills, dyke spilt material or otherwise contain it to ensure runoff does not reach a waterway. Place spilt material in an appropriate container for disposal. Avoid contact of spilt material with soil and prevent runoff entering surface waterways.

Personal protection in case of a large spill: Splash goggles. Full suit. Vapour respirator or self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Boots. Gloves. Suggested protective clothing might not be adequate. Consult a specialist before handling this product.

Handling and storage

Handling: Do not get in eyes, on skin or on clothing. Keep container closed. Use only with adequate ventilation. Keep away from heat, sparks and flame. To avoid fire or explosion, dissipate static electricity during transfer by earthing and bonding containers and equipment before transferring material. Use explosion-proof electrical (ventilating, lighting and material handling) equipment. Wash thoroughly after handling. Cyanide poisoning first-aid (antidote) kits containing amyl nitrite ampules (or equivalent) must be available at the work site.

Storage: Store in a segregated and approved area. Keep container in a cool, well-ventilated area. Keep container tightly closed and sealed until ready for use. Avoid all possible sources of ignition (spark or flame).

Transport information

Land transport (ADR/RID)

UN number:
UN1648
Proper shipping name and description:
Acetonitrile
Chemical name:
Acetonitrile
Language:
English
Class:
3
Packaging group:
II
Labels:
Class 3 - Flammable liquid
SpecialProvisionsopen allclose all

Inland waterway transport (ADN(R))

UN number:
UN1648
Proper shipping name and description:
Acetonitrile
Chemical name:
Acetonitrile
Language:
English
Class:
3
Packaging group:
II
Labels:
Class 3 - Flammable liquid
Remarksopen allclose all

Marine transport (IMDG)

UN number:
UN1648
Proper shipping name and description:
Acetonitrile
Chemical name:
Acetonitrile
Class:
3
Packaging group:
II
Labels:
Class 3 - Flammable liquid
Remarksopen allclose all

Air transport ICAO/IATA

UN number:
UN1648
Proper shipping name and description:
Acetonitrile
Chemical name:
Acetonitrile
Class:
3
Packaging group:
II
Labels:
Class 3 - Flammable liquid
Remarksopen allclose all
SpecialProvisionsopen allclose all

Exposure controls / personal protection

Ingredient name: Acetonitrile

Occupational exposure limits
EH40-OES (United Kingdom (UK), 2001).
STEL: 102 mg/m3 15 minute(s).
STEL: 60 ppm 15 minute(s).
TWA: 68 mg/m3 8 hour(s).
TWA: 40 ppm 8 hour(s).

EH40-WEL (United Kingdom (UK), 1/2005).
STEL: 102 mg/m3 15 minute(s).
STEL: 60 ppm 15 minute(s).
TWA: 68 mg/m3 8 hour(s).
TWA: 40 ppm 8 hour(s).

Control Measures: Provide exhaust ventilation or other engineering controls to keep the airborne concentrations of vapours below their respective occupational exposure limits.

Hygiene measures: Wash hands after handling compounds and before eating, smoking and using the lavatory and at the end of the day.

Personal protective equipment
Respiratory system: Use with adequate ventilation. Do not breathe vapour or mist. If operating conditions cause high vapour concentrations or the TLV is exceeded, use supplied-air respirator.

Skin and body Do not get on skin or clothing. Wear suitable protective clothing.
Hands Wear gloves that cannot be penetrated by chemicals or oil.(Butyl rubber gloves.) The correct choice of protective gloves depends upon the chemicals being handled, the conditions of work and use, and the condition of the gloves (even the best chemically resistant glove will break down after repeated chemical exposures). Most gloves provide only a short time of protection before they must be discarded and replaced. Because specific work environments and material handling practices vary, safety procedures should be developed for each intended application. Gloves should therefore be chosen in consultation with the supplier/manufacturer and with a full assessment of the working conditions.

Eyes Avoid contact with eyes. Chemical splash goggles.

Stability and reactivity

Conditions to avoid Avoid all possible sources of ignition (spark or flame). Take precautionary measures against static
discharges.

Incompatibility with various substances: Incompatible with acids, bases, nitrating agents, nitrogen-fluorine compounds, oxidizers, perchlorates, sulphites.

Hazardous polymerization: Under normal conditions of storage and use, hazardous polymerisation will not occur.

Hazardous decomposition products: Decomposition products may include the following materials: carbon oxides (CO, CO2), nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2 etc.), Hydrogen cyanide (HCN).

Disposal considerations

Disposal Consideration / Waste information: Avoid contact of spilt material and runoff with soil and surface waterways. Consult an environmental professional to determine if local, regional or national regulations would classify spilled or contaminated materials as hazardous waste. Use only approved transporters, recyclers, treatment, storage or disposal facilities. Comply with all local, regional, and national laws pertaining to waste management.