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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Description of key information

The acute toxicity of acetonitrile on aquatic invertebrates has been studied by several investigators.  Reported LC50 values range from 400 mg/L to 8250 mg/L.  The lowest values were reported by Barahona-Gomeriz et al (1994), who studied the marine crustacean, Artemia salina and reported 24 -hour LC50 values in 24, 48 and 72-hr larvae exposed to acetonitrile of 641, 521 and 400 mg/L, respectively. 

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
3 600 mg/L
EC50/LC50 for marine water invertebrates:
400 mg/L

Additional information

The acute toxicity of acetonitrile on aquatic invertebrates has been studied by several investigators. Data are summarized in the table below. Ewell et al. (1986) studied the acute effects of acetonitrile on six species from different taxonomic groups including Arthropoda, Platyhelminthes, Mollusca and Annelida; all LC50values were reported as > 100 mg/L. Additional acute data reported by Bowman et al. (1981) and Tong et al (1996) on (Daphnia magna, Daphnia pulex, Culex restuans),and (Palaemonetes kadiakensis)indicate acute LC50 values in the g/L range.

Barahona-Gomeriz et al (1994) reported lower acute LC50 values in the marine crustacean, (Artemia salina). 24 -hour LC50 values in 24, 48 and 72-hr larvae exposed to acetonitrile were 641, 521 and 400 mg/L, respectively.

 

In a guideline (OECD 202) and GLP study, MCSI of Japan (1996) reported the 48 -hr EC50 (immobilization) value for acetonitrile in Daphnia magna to be >1000 mg/L (nominal conc.).

 

Toxicity of acetonitrile to aquatic invertebrates

SPECIES

TEST TYPE

DURATION

TOXICITY

END POINT

(mg/l)

REFERENCE

Daphnia magna

(fresh water crustacean)

Static renewal, nominal concentration

48 hr

LC50= 3600

Tong et al., (1996)

Daphnia magna

(fresh water crustacean)

Static renewal, nominal concentration

48 hr

EC5>1000

(immobilization)

MCSI, Japan (1996)

Artemia salina

(marine crustacean)

Static, nominal concentration

24 hr

LC50= 400

Barahona-Gomeriz et al.,(1994)

Asellus intermedius

(fresh water crustacean)

Static, nominal concentration

96 hr

EC50>100

Ewell et al., (1986)

 

Daphnia magna

(fresh water crustacean)

Static, nominal concentration

24 hr

EC50> 10,000

Bringmann and Kuhn (1982)

Dapnia pulex

(fresh water crustacean)

Static, nominal concentration

18 hr

EC50= 5810

Bownan et al., (1981)

Dapnia magna

(fresh water crustacean)

Static, nominal concentration

96 hr

LC50> 100

Ewell et al (1986)

 

Gammarus fasciatus

(fresh water crustacean)

Static, nominal concentration

96 hr

LC50> 100

Ewell et al., (1986)

 

Culex restuans

(insect larvae)

Static, nominal concentration

18 hr

EC50= 8250

Bownan et al., (1981)

Dugesia tigrina flatworus (Phatyhelminthe)

Static, nominal concentration

96 hr

LC50> 100

Ewell et al., (1986)

 

Helisoma trivolvis

(fresh water snail)

Static, nominal concentration

96 hr

LC50> 100

Ewell et al (1986)

Lumbriculus variegatus (segmented worm)

Static, nominal concentration

96 hr

EC50> 100

Ewell et al., (1986)

Palaemonetes kadiakensis(fresh water crustacean)

Static, nominal concentration

18 hr

EC50= 5140

Bowman et al., (1981)