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EC number: 202-486-1
CAS number: 96-18-4
- Table 4: Number of mobile daphnids during the test
Number of mobile daphnidsA
Mean immobility attest termination
A Between brackets the number of mobile
daphnids showing sublethal effects is given. Sublethal effect in this
study was less activity.
B Not observed an day 0 but
extrapolated from the observations after 48 hours.
The acute toxicity of 1,2,3-trichloropropane to water fleas (Daphnia
magna) was tested following OECD Guideline 202 (1984) and according
to OECD GLP Principles of Good Laboratory Practice and Compliance
Monitoring No. 1, ENV/MC/CHEM/(98)17 of 21 January 1998.
The test was conducted at nominal concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, 20
and 40 mg/L. Because 1,2,3-trichloropropane is volatile, the test was
conducted in closed glass flasks with a volume of 320 mL. Three flasks,
each with 320 mL test solution, were prepared per concentration and 10
daphnids were added to each flask. The experiment was terminated alter
48 hours of exposure.
To study the exposure of the daphnids to 1,2,3-trichloropropane, samples
of the test solutions were taken at the start and at the end of the test
and analysed with Gas Chromatography. The difference between the nominal
and the mean measured concentrations was larger than 20 % and for this
reason the biological endpoints of the test were based on the average of
the measured concentration being 0, 2.5, 4.7, 8.4, 15 and 27 mg/L.
No immobility was observed in the control glass beakers.
The No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) based on immobility and mean
measured concentrations was determined with Fisher's Exact Test (Sokal
et al 1981) and was equal to 15 mg/L.
The NOEC based on sublethal effects was 8.4 mg/L.
As there was no concentration with partial immobility, the geometric
mean of the highest concentration without immobility (= 15 mg/L) and the
lowest concentration with 100 % immobility (= 27 mg/L) can be regarded
as the 48-h EC50.
The EC50 based on mean measured
concentrations was 20 mg/L.
The 95 % confidence interval of the EC50-48h is 15 - 27 mg/L.
TABLE 2: Mortality Rates and Water Quality Measurements During
the Acute Toxicity Test of TCP to Daphnia magna
Nominal Concentration [mg//L]
The acute toxicity of Trichloropropane to Daphnia magna was
assessed using the methods outlined by the Committee on Methods for
Toxicity Tests with Aquatic organisms. Thus the study was conducted in
accordance with a recognized scientific method for determining acute
toxicity to daphnia, and in accordance with GLP regulations. Water
quality parameters and temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were
measured at the termination of the test and were within acceptable
There was no chemical analysis performed to verify or validate the
test concentration. Owing to the demonstrated volatility of
1,2,3-trichloropropane, a 48-hour water evaporation study was performed
to determine the actual concentrations to which the daphnia were
exposed. These results verified that the test material is a volatile
compound for which actual concentrations must be measured throughout the
All reported values were based upon nominal concentrations. The
48-hour LC50 for the Compound Trichloropropane was found 20
mg/L (95% C.I.). The no-effect level observed for Trichloropropane as
5.6 mg/L after 48 hours, which was based on the lack of mortality and
The test item will evaporate from the aqueous phase to some
extent, thus reducing the exposure concentration for aquatic species
(Solvay 2001). For this reason the study is considered not reliable.
The toxicity of eleven non-polar narcotic chemicals to the
cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubiawas determined according to ASTM
and U.S. EPA standard protocols. The test organisms C. cf. dubiawas
with regard to molar concentrations found to be approximately four times
more sensitive to all of these narcotic chemicals than Daphnia magna tested
under virtually identical conditions by Hermens et al (1984). The
toxicity data were also used to develop and validate quantitative
structure-activity relationships (QSARs) and thus 10 references were
tested with results in line.
Invertebrates represent the most susceptible organism group in the aquatic environment. Although marine species data exist the dose descriptors for both freshwater and marine water are assigned to the lowest value obtained from freshwater, due to reliability considerations .
For those invertebrates tested, the lowest 48-h EC50
value of 4.1 mg/L with the endpoint immobilization, which was about 5
times lower than the corresponding value from daphnids, was reported by
Rose et al (1998) for a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia). The
EC 50 for daphnids (Daphnia magna)
was found to be 20 mg/L (de Groot 2002). Both studies followed a
guideline protocol and are considered valid and conclusive.
For marine species a value is available from Kooijman (1981). The
test organism employed was (Chaetogammarus marinus) and the
measured endpoint was LC50 after 48 h
of 45 mg/L. Since the latter is not reliable because of lacking
analytical dose verification and supposed vaporisation of TCP during the
exposition, the freshwater value should be used in assessment for the
marine compartment as well.
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