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EC number: 266-028-2
CAS number: 65996-93-2
The residue from the distillation of high temperature coal tar. A black solid with an approximate softening point from 30°C to 180°C (86°F to 356°F). Composed primarily of a complex mixture of three or more membered condensed ring aromatic hydrocarbons.
Pitch, coal tar, high temp. is a UVCB substance of variable
composition. It consists of a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons (PAH), predominantly of highly condensed aromatic ring
systems forming an inert matrix. This matrix is not accessible by common
analytical tools. The substance is scarcely soluble in water. Solubility
in organic solvents (e.g. toluene or quinoline) is limited. The 16 EPA
PAH are present in a concentration of up to 7.5 %. Maximum concentration
of benzo[a]pyrene is 1.5 % (see CSR Sect. 1.).
Due to its poor solubility in water, tests for aquatic toxicity
were performed using water-accommodated fractions. Pitch, coal tar, high
temp. did not produce noticeable acute aquatic toxicity under standard
test conditions in fish, daphnia, and algae at nominal concentrations of
100 mg/L (loadings). In addition, significant chronic toxicity was not
observed at nominal concentrations (loadings) of 100 mg/L in a Daphnia
reproduction test (see CSR Sect. 7.1.).
Based on these results, pitch, coal tar, high temp., is not
considered to be an environmentally hazardous substance due to its inert
inherent properties. Because of its poor water-solubility and its
complex high-molecular aromatic structure, it can be neither biodegraded
nor bioaccumulated. Coal tar pitch failed to show acute and chronic
Nevertheless, EPA PAH can exert adverse effects to the
environment. They are present in coal tar pitch, high temp. and may be
released into the environment from emissions of coal tar pitch to a
certain extent during manufacture and use. In the absence of significant
aquatic toxicity of coal tar pitch, they will be used as surrogate to
assess a possible impact of coal tar pitch on environmental protection
Phototoxic effects produced by certain PAHs under the influence of
sun/UV-light can be waived by way of a weight-of-evidence approach,
namely by comparing water solubility and photo-toxicity data of critical
key components of pitch.
For environmental assessment, it is assumed that the basic
composition of the substance is maintained during release.
Environmentally active components are benzo[a]pyrene and other PAH (1.5
% and 7.5 % maximal concentration, respectively). The highly condensed,
inert matrix of coal tar pitch is neither soluble nor biodegradable or
bioaccumulating. This material will not contribute to the environmental
hazard of coal tar pitch. The inclusion of total EPA PAH in coal tar
pitch in the environmental assessment will adequately characterise the
environmental hazard associated with coal tar pitch, high temp. Risk
will very likely be overestimated by this approach.
For the purpose of risk assessment, benzo[a]pyrene is selected as
marker substance, since it is present in coal tar pitch at the highest
concentration of the EPA PAH. In addition, it is one of the best
characterised PAH components and one of the most environmentally toxic
As basis for the environmental assessment of coal tar pitch, PNECs
for benzo[a]pyrene are derived in a first step based on experimental
results originating from tests with benzo[a]pyrene as test substance.
Derivation of PNECs is performed according to ECHA guidance documents.
In a second step, PNECs for benzo[a]pyrene are extrapolated to
PNECs valid for total coal tar pitch, high temp. In a simplified
approach, a similar average environmental toxicity is supposed for
benzo[a]pyrene and the other EPA PAH present in coal tar pitch. In order
to account for the presence of the other EPA PAH in coal tar pitch,
linear extrapolation is performed based on the concentrations of
benzo[a]pyrene and total EPA PAH in coal tar pitch (1.5 % and 7.5 %,
respectively). Thus, benzo[a]pyrene specific PNECs are reduced by a
factor of 1/5 (1.5 divided by 7.5) to obtain PNECs representing total
coal tar pitch, high temp.
The resulting PNECs for pitch, coal tar, high temp., are displayed
in the table above. These PNECs will be used in the exposure assessment
and risk characterisation in CSR Sect. 9 and 10.
Because pitch, coal tar, high temp. (CTPht) is a UVCB substance,
it is very difficult to classify it on the basis of the individual
components. In addition, not all the components can be analysed when
diluted in water. The composition in the water phase will not be the
same at different loadings. As recommended for oil products and products
such as creosote in the OECD Guidance Document on Aquatic Toxicity
Testing of Difficult Substances and Mixtures (OECD, 2000), the
water-accommodated fraction (WAF) approach is considered most
appropriate to classify CTPht. The classification criteria are applied
to the loading rate.
Pitch, coal tar, high temp., produced no acute aquatic toxicity
under standard test conditions in fish (OECD TG 203), in daphnia (OECD
TG 202), and in algae (OECD TG 201). The effective loadings, EL50/LL50
values, were consistently higher than 100 mg/L. Based on weight of
evidence, there is no concern over PAH-induced acute photo-toxicity.
Furthermore, CTPht has no bioaccumulation potential.
Hence, based on experimental evidence and weight of evidence,
pitch, coal tar, high temp. requires no classification for environmental
hazards in accordance to Regulation (EC) 1272/2008 (CLP regulation)
amended/consolidated version of 01.01.2020, Annex I, section 18.104.22.168.,
Tables 4.1.0 (a) and 4.1.0 (b) (iii) (compare to Annex VI, Table 3 of
Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 amended by Commission Delegated Regulation
(EU) 2020/217 of 4 October 2019).
However, for precautionary reasons, CTPht is recommended to be
classified for long-term aspects as a potential source of environmental
release of PAHs, which may be a cause of concern. Therefore, CTPht is
self-classified by the registrant based on the ‘Safety net‘
classification as Aquatic Chronic 4 (H413: May cause long lasting
harmful effects to aquatic life) according to Annex I, section 22.214.171.124.,
Table 4.1.0.(b) (iii) of Regulation (EC) 1272/2008 (current version).
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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