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Toxicological information

Direct observations: clinical cases, poisoning incidents and other

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
direct observations: clinical cases, poisoning incidents and other
Type of information:
other: Human observational study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Perforation of nasal septum due to button battery lodging in nose
Author:
Fernando P
Year:
1987
Bibliographic source:
British Med. J., 294, 742-743.

Materials and methods

Study type:
poisoning incident
Endpoint addressed:
skin irritation / corrosion
Principles of method if other than guideline:
A 4-year old boy who had a button battery lodged in his nose for appr. 24 hrs had local tissue corrosion, with a small perforation, caused presumably by the 25% KOH electrolyte.
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): button battery containing 25% KOH electrolyte

Method

Type of population:
general
Subjects:
A 4-year old boy
Ethical approval:
not applicable
Route of exposure:
dermal
Reason of exposure:
accidental
Exposure assessment:
estimated
Details on exposure:
A 4-year old boy who had a button battery lodged in his nose for appr. 24 hrs had local tissue corrosion, with a small perforation, caused presumably by the 25% KOH electrolyte.

Results and discussion

Results of examinations:
A 4-year old boy who had a button battery lodged in his nose for appr. 24 hrs had local tissue corrosion, with a small perforation, caused presumably by the 25% KOH electrolyte.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
indication of potassium hydroxide causing tissue corrosion.
Executive summary:

The potential for corrosive alkali injury from batteries is in fact dependent on their electrical properties, by the progressive electrolysis of the battery casing, in the area of the seal. Moreover, it is thought that burns to the esophagus could be due to the low-voltage DC producing an electrolysis with an increase of pH. Battery ingestions in the UK and the USA are reviewed.