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Ecotoxicological information

Biological effects monitoring

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
biological effects monitoring
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
review article or handbook
Title:
Review of medical physiology. 20th ed.
Author:
Ganong, W. F.
Year:
2001
Bibliographic source:
McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing, California.
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
1997

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Potassium is essential constituent and one of the most abundant ions in all animal species.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of study / information:
Biological monitoring for potassium in Animals

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent

Results and discussion

Any other information on results incl. tables

Potassium is essential constituent and one of the most abundant ions in all animal species. The biological effects of action of theseions are well reviewed :

K+ is the principal cation mediating the osmoticbalance of the body fluids. In animals, themaintenance of normal cell volume and pressuredepends on Na+ and K+ pumping.

Metabolic energy isexpended in maintaining the gradient. In theabsence of such pumping, sodiumwould enter the cells down their concentrationgradients, and water would follow along theosmotic gradient thus created, causing the cellsto swell until the pressure inside them balancethe influx. Because sodium and potassium areactively transported, theosmolality of the cellsremains the same as that of the interstitialfluid. The membrane potential is maintained, andthe chloride concentration inside the cellsremains low.

 

 

The K+/Na+ separation has allowed for evolution ofreversible transmembrane electrical potentialsessential for nerve and muscle action in animals.

Potassium transport through the hydrofobicinterior of a membrane can be facilitated by anumber of natural compounds that form lipidsolublealkali metal cation complexes. Potassium

serves the critical role as counterion for variouscarboxylates, phosphates and sulphates, andstabilizes macromolecular structures.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Potassium is essential constituent and one of the most abundant ions in all animal species.
Executive summary:

Potassium is essential constituent and one of the most abundant ions in all animal species. The biological effects of action of theseions are well reviewed :

K+ is the principal cation mediating the osmoticbalance of the body fluids. In animals, themaintenance of normal cell volume and pressuredepends on Na+ and K+ pumping. Metabolic energy isexpended in maintaining the gradient. In theabsence of such pumping, sodiumwould enter the cells down their concentrationgradients, and water would follow along theosmotic gradient thus created, causing the cellsto swell until the pressure inside them balancethe influx. Because sodium and potassium areactively transported, theosmolality of the cellsremains the same as that of the interstitialfluid. The membrane potential is maintained, andthe chloride concentration inside the cellsremains low.    

The K+/Na+ separation has allowed for evolution ofreversible transmembrane electrical potentialsessential for nerve and muscle action in animals. Potassium transport through the hydrofobicinterior of a membrane can be facilitated by anumber of natural compounds that form lipidsolublealkali metal cation complexes. Potassium serves the critical role as counterion for variouscarboxylates, phosphates and sulphates, andstabilizes macromolecular structures.