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Physical & Chemical properties

Flammability

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Endpoint:
flammable solids
Type of information:
other: handbook data
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
data from handbook or collection of data
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
not applicable- handbook data
Test procedure:
other: not applicable
Remarks on result:
other: TiO2 is noncombustible

Titanium dioxide is a noncombustible [1,4] inorganic oxide, in which the cation is in its highest possible oxidation state (Ti4+), and which is therefore incapable of further reaction with oxygen, it is intrinsically not combustible. In the relevant production processes of Ti and TiO2 temperatures above 1000 °C up to 1500 °C were reached. [2,3,5]. Considering that TiO2 was produced by high temperature, testing of flammability is not required.

Sulphate process [2]

FeTiO3 + 2H2SO4 -> TiOSO4 + FeSO4 + 2H2O

TiOSO4 -> (OH-)-> TiO2nH2O + H2SO4

TiO2nH2O->(heat)-> TiO2+ nH2O

Chloride process [2] 

TiO2(impure) + 2Cl2+ C -> TiCl4+ CO2

TiCl4+ O2 ->TiO2(pure) + 2Cl2

Kroll-process [5,6]

FeTiO3 + C -> Fe + TiO2 + CO

TiO2 + 2C+Cl2 ->TiCl4 + 2CO

TiCL4 + 2Mg -> Ti + 2MgCl2

Since titanium dioxide is intrinsically not combustible and based on the fact that it is produced by high temperatures, TiO2 can safely be assumed not to be ignitable under the conditions given in EU-Method A.10. (Flammability solids). Further, it is noted that despite long-term industrial use of the substance, it is not classified in Division 4.1 Flammable solid according to UN transport regulations.

[1] https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2011-160/pdfs/2011-160.pdf

[2] https://arquivo.pt/wayback/20110124235702/http://www.huntsman.com/pigments/Media/Manufacture_and_Generals_Properties.pdf

[3] Bordbar, H., Production of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) from titanium ores: A review, Polyolefins Journal, Vol.4, No.2 (2017)   

[4] http://www.ilo.org/dyn/icsc/showcard.display?p_version=2&p_card_id=0338

[5] Holleman, A. F. & Wiberg, E., Inorganic Chemistry, Academic Press: San Diego, 2001

[6] Mortimer, C. & Müller, U., Chemie-Basiswissen der Chemie, Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart, 2003

Interpretation of results:
GHS criteria not met
Conclusions:
Titanium dioxide is not combustible
Endpoint:
substances / mixtures which in contact with water emit flammable gases
Data waiving:
study scientifically not necessary / other information available
Justification for data waiving:
the study does not need to be conducted because the experience in production or handling shows that the substance does not react with water, e.g. the substance is manufactured with water or washed with water
Endpoint:
pyrophoric solids
Data waiving:
study scientifically not necessary / other information available
Justification for data waiving:
the study does not need to be conducted because the substance is known to be stable in contact with air at room temperature for prolonged periods of time (days) and hence, the classification procedure does not need to be applied

Description of key information

Titanium dioxide is noncombustible, does not emmit flammable gases in contact with water and has no pyrophoric properties.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Flammability:
not classified

Additional information

Justification for classification or non-classification

Titanium dioxide does not need to be classified according to CLP Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 since it is not highly flammable.