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EC number: 236-675-5
CAS number: 13463-67-7
STABILITY OF THE TIO2 SUSPENSION
- Addition of 1 wt% SHP and sonication resulted in the formation of
stable suspensions for 24 h (hydrodynamic diameter in dispersion, DLS:
230 nm; zeta potential, ELS: -35 mV)
FUNCTIONALITY OF THE TREATMENT PROCESS:
- DOC elimination (above 97% at test end) and nitrification within the
test unit was comparable to that of the reference unit.
- Increase of suspended solids was observed in the outflow of the test
unit (4 -17 mg/L) compared to the reference unit (1 -2 mg/L). This is
explained with the use of the dispersant SHP. However, the
concentrations of filterable solids were still within an acceptable
range. In technical STP filterable solids above 30 mg/L are considered
as a malfunction.
FATE OF TIO2 IN LABORATORY SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT:
- High correlation between the TiO2 concentration in the surplus sludge
and in the outflow of the laboratory sewage treatment plant (LSTP): R² =
0.84; Concentration in the activated sludge was 23 times higher than in
- SEM and EDX scans of the sewage sludge and the effluent show
agglomerates of P25 in sludge but not in the effluent.
- Total TiO2 amount added to the LSTP in trial 1 and 2 were 504 mg and
840 mg, respectively.
- Mass balance trial 1 (after 22 d): 78% activated sludge, 4% outflow
and 18% balance gap
- Mass balance trial 2 (after 32 d): 60% activated sludge, 3% outflow
and 37% balance gap
-The measured TiO2 concentration in the unfiltered outflow highly
correlates with the calculated TiO2 concentration, which is calculated
by multiplying the TiO2 concentration in the activated sludge by the
concentration of filterable solids and divided by the dry solids of the
activated sludge in the aeration vessel (R² = 0.86). However, the
measured TiO2 concentration was four times higher than the calculated
TiO2 concentration based on filterable solids. It is assumed that the
TiO2 concentration in the outflow is mainly determined by the presence
of smaller particles below 0.6 µm and not by the sludge overflow as
mesured by the filterable solids (> 0.6 mm).
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