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Please be aware that this old REACH registration data factsheet is no longer maintained; it remains frozen as of 19th May 2023.

The new ECHA CHEM database has been released by ECHA, and it now contains all REACH registration data. There are more details on the transition of ECHA's published data to ECHA CHEM here.

Diss Factsheets

Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to other aquatic organisms

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Administrative data

toxicity to other aquatic vertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
disregarded due to major methodological deficiencies
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remarks'
The references contained in this summary entry represent investigations on the effect of bulk titanium dioxide on different aquatic species following short- or long-term exposure, with very limited value for risk assessment purposes. All references do not fulfil the criteria for quality, reliability and adequacy of experimental data for the fulfilment of data requirements under REACH and hazard assessment purposes (ECHA guidance R4 in conjunction with regulation (EC) 1907/2006, Annexes VII-X). The information contained therein were included for information purposes only.

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
Evaluation of the effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on cultured Rana catesbeiana tailfin tissue
Hammond, S.A. et al.
Bibliographic source:
Front Genet. 2013 Nov 21;4:251
Reference Type:
Effect of nanomaterials on the compound action potential of the shore crab, Carcinus maenas
Windeatt, K.M.; Handy, R.D.
Bibliographic source:
Nanotoxicology 7, 378-388

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
Hammond et al. (2013):
test organism: Rana catesbeiana; The effect of micro-sized titanium dioxide on the gene expression of tissue of tadpoles tailfin was investigated after 48 h of incubation.

Windeatt & Handy (2013:
test organism: Carcinus maenas; The effect of titanium dioxide on the single action potential of nerve cells of frogs was investigated by in vitro testing.

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Titanium dioxide
EC Number:
EC Name:
Titanium dioxide
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
Test material form:
solid: bulk
Details on test material:
- Name of tested material:
Windeatt & Handy (2013: titanium dioxide (ACROS, USA, anatase/rutile 75/25)
Hammond et al. (2013): Titanium dioxide (TIONA AT-1, Christal Global, Belgium, anatase)

- Particle size:
Windeatt & Handy (2013: 134.1 ± 42.5 nm
Hammond et al. (2013): 200-220 nm

- Purity:
Windeatt & Handy (2013: 98.0 - 105 %
Hammond et al. (2013): 98.5 %

Sampling and analysis

Details on sampling:
Analytical confirmation of test concentration:
Windeatt & Handy (2013: no
Hammond et al. (2013): no

Test organisms

Aquatic vertebrate type (other than fish):
other: Windeatt & Handy (2013: crab, Hammond et al. (2013): frog
Test organisms (species):
other: see below
Details on test organisms:
- test organism:
Windeatt & Handy (2013: Carcinus maenas
Hammond et al. (2013): Rana catesbeiana

Study design

Test type:
Water media type:
Limit test:
Remarks on exposure duration:
Windeatt & Handy (2013: at least 5 stimulations; Hammond et al. (2013): 48 h

Test conditions

Nominal and measured concentrations:
Windeatt & Handy (2013): 0 (control 1 and 2), 1 mg TiO2 NP/L
Hammond et al. (2013): 0 (control), 0.1, 1.0, and 10 nM TiO2

Results and discussion

Effect concentrationsopen allclose all
Conc. based on:
Remarks on result:
other: Windeatt & Handy (2013: no significant effects were observed
Conc. based on:
Remarks on result:
other: Hammond et al. (2013): effects on gene expression were observed

Any other information on results incl. tables

All studies have methodological shortcomings so that reported effects cannot be considered reliable and/or relevant for the risk assessment as follows:

Windeatt & Handy (2013): single concentration was tested, in vitro testing of isolated nerve cells is no relevant examination

Hammond et al. (2013):in vitro testing of isolated tissue is no relevant examination

Applicant's summary and conclusion

All studies have methodological shortcomings so that reported effects cannot be considered reliable.