Registration Dossier

Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to terrestrial plants

Currently viewing:

Administrative data

Link to relevant study record(s)

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
April 23, 1987-June 8, 1987
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Justification for type of information:
Refer to the section 13 of the dataset for details on the read across justification.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 208 (Terrestrial Plants Test: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
(% particles less than 20 µg not given; 4.1% instead of maximum 3% organic carbon in the test soil; sand was sieved with 1 mm mesh instead of 0.5 mm mesh; weight and variability of seeds not reported; nominal concentrations not measured).
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
The test was conducted in an artificial soil consisting of commercially available potting compost (WC-B) and washed, sieved (1 mm mesh), dried (temperature and time not reported) silver sand. The sand:WC-B ratio was 1:9.
Species:
Sorghum bicolor
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Sorghum
- Variety: Dekalb 64
- Source of seed: Dekalk, USA
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): viability of at least 80%
Species:
Helianthus annuus
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Sunflower
- Variety: Rodeo
- Source of seed: Codasal, France
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): viability of at least 80%
Species:
Phaseolus aureus
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Mung bean
- Source of seed: Clause Seeds, UK
- Historical germination of seed (germination of seed lot tested): viability of at least 80%
Test type:
seedling emergence and seedling growth test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
artificial soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
21 d
Test temperature:
11-37 degrees C
pH:
6.8-7.9
Moisture:
11.9%
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Testing facility: Jealott's Hill Greenhouse Number 130/2
- Test container (type, material, size): 10-cm diameter, non-porous plastic plant pots, capacity of approx. 600 g
- Amount of soil: ~600 g
- No. of seeds per container: 8
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 4
- No. of replicates per control: 4

GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: at least 14 hrs
- Light source: if natural sunlight was poor, mercury vapor lamps were used
- Light intensity and quality: 5,000 lux
- Watering regime and schedules: capillary matting sub-irrigation system, twice daily

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : seedling emergence and growth
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0, 1, 10, 100, 1000 mg/kg active ingredient in dry soil.
Nominal LAS concentrations were not measured.
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Key result
Species:
other: all 3
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
100 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
Sorghum bicolor
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
167 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
Helianthus annuus
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
289 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth
Species:
Phaseolus aureus
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
316 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
growth
Details on results:
There was 91% emergence of sunflowers at all concentrations. Mung bean emergence was at least 84% at concentrations of 100 mg/kg AI or below. At 1000 mg/kg AI, emergence was only 75%. Seed emergence was 78-84% in sorghum for controls and all concentrations but the highest. At 1,000 mg/kg AI, emergence was only 69%. At the 1000 mg/kg AI concentration, sunflowers and mung beans barely emerged, and showed signs of dying. Sorghum shoots at this concentration were healthy but stunted. The low emergence in mung beans may be due to a cold spell early in the test.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
EC50 values were determined by computer Probit analysis.

Number (Percent) of Plants Emerged at Day 7

Species

Control

1 mg/kg

10 mg/kg

100 mg/kg

1000 mg/kg

Sorghum

26 (81)

27 (84)

27 (84)

25 (78)

22 (69)

Sunflower

30 (94)

32 (100)

30 (94)

32 (100)

29 (91)

Mung bean

31 (97)

27 (84)

30 (94)

27 (84)

24 (75)

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The NOEC of C11 LAS for all three species is 100 mg a.i./kg. The 21-day EC50 values for sunflower was 167, 289 and 316 mg a.i./kg dw for Sorghum bicolor, Helianthus annuus and Phaseolus aureus, respectively.
Executive summary:

The toxicity of LAS to three species of plant, sunflower, sorghum, and mung bean, was determined. Seeds of these three species were grown in soil containing concentrations of the test ingredient of 0, 1, 10, 100, 1000 mg/kg active ingredient in dry soil. The emergence and growth of seedlings was monitored for 21 days. There was a decrease in emergence of all three species at the highest concentration, with some shoots barely emerging, and stunted and dying.

The NOEC (growth) of C11 LAS for all three species was 100 mg a.i./kg. The 21-day EC50 values for sunflower was 167, 289 and 316 mg a.i./kg dw for Sorghum bicolor, Helianthus annuus and Phaseolus aureus, respectively.

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with generally accepted scientific standards and described in sufficient detail
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Three species of crop plant Brassica rapa, Avena sativa, and Sinapis alba, were grown in soil containing concentrations of LAS that varied from 0 -10,000 mg/kg dw soil. The seedlings were grown for 14 days, and then weighed. The shoot fresh weight of all plants per pot was compared to weights of controls plants.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Species:
Avena sativa
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: oats
Species:
Brassica rapa
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: turnip
Species:
Sinapis alba
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: mustard
Test type:
early seedling growth toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
other: soil, not specified
Total exposure duration:
14 d
pH:
6.1
Moisture:
23.2 g/100 g soil
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container (type, material, size): self-watering pots
- Amount of soil: 70 g

SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Soil texture (if natural soil)
- % sand: 54.3
- % silt: 35.7
- % clay: 9.9
- Soil classification system: sandy loam soil
- Organic carbon (%): 1.3
- Maximum water holding capacity (in % dry weigth): 23.2 g/100 g soil
- No. of replicates per treatment group: Four
- No. of replicates per control: Four


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : shoot fresh weight at 14 days
Nominal and measured concentrations:
9 concentrations from 0 - 10,000 mg/kg soil
Key result
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
80 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Key result
Species:
Brassica rapa
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
86 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Key result
Species:
Sinapis alba
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
200 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
growth
Details on results:
There was a steep dose-response curve in all species.
Conclusions:
The EC10 for B. rapa was 86 mg/kg dw soil, for A. sativa it was 80 mg/kg dw soil, and for S. alba it was 200 mg/kg soil.
Executive summary:

Three species of crop plant B. rapa, A. sativa, and S. alba, were grown in soil containing concentrations of LAS that varied from 0 -10,000 mg/kg dw soil. The seedlings were grown for 14 days, and then weighed. The weight was compared to weights of controls plants. All three species showed a dose-related reduction in growth. The EC10 for B. rapa was 86 mg/kg dw soil, for A. sativa it was 80 mg/kg dw soil, and for S. alba it was 200 mg/kg dw soil.

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 208 (Terrestrial Plants Test: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
7 plants per pot instead of the standard 5.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Details on sampling:
no data
Species:
other: Malva pusilla
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Plant family: Malvaceae
- Source of seed: Botanischen Garten von Dresden, Karlsruche, and Dresden
Species:
other: Solanum nigrum
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: black nightshade
- Plant family: Solanaceae
- Variety: L. emend.
- Source of seed: Institut f. Unkrautforschung der Biologischen Bundesanstalt fur Land- und Forstwirtschaft (Braunschweig)
Species:
other: Chenopodium album
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Pigweed
- Plant family: Amaranthaceae
- Source of seed: Institut f. Unkrautforschung der Biologischen Bundesanstalt fur Land- und Forstwirtschaft (Braunschweig)
Species:
other: Amaranthus retroflexus
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Pigweed
- Plant family: Amaranthaceae
- Source of seed: Institut f. Unkrautforschung der Biologischen Bundesanstalt fur Land- und Forstwirtschaft (Braunschweig)
Species:
other: Nigella arvensis
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: wild fennel
- Plant family: Ranunculaceae
- Source of seed: Botanischen Garten von Halle und Karlsruhe
Species:
other: Galinsoga parviflora
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Quickweed
- Plant family: Asteraceae
Species:
Brassica rapa
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: field mustard
- Plant family: Brassicaceae
- Source of seed: Institut f. Unkrautforschung der Biologischen Bundesanstalt fur Land- und Forstwirtschaft (Braunschweig)
Test type:
vegetative vigour test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
artificial soil
Total exposure duration:
14 d
Test temperature:
no data
pH:
no data
Moisture:
70% of maximum
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container (type, material, size): pots
- Amount of soil: 200 ml
- Method of seeding: germinated in petri dishes
- No. of seeds per container: 7

SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- % sand: 49.5
- % silt: 39.0
- % clay: 11.6
- Organic carbon (%): 0.99

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : growth

Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: control, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 mg/kg dw
Key result
Species:
other: Malva pusilla
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
204 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Key result
Species:
other: Solanum nigrum
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
169 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Key result
Species:
other: Chenopodium album
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
164 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Key result
Species:
other: Amaranthus retroflexus
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
142 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Key result
Species:
other: Nigella arvensis
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
133 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Key result
Species:
other: Galinsoga parviflora
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
90 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Key result
Species:
Brassica rapa
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
164 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Conclusions:
The 14-day EC50 for various plant species ranged from 90-204 mg/kg dw.
Executive summary:

Plants from seven different species, Malva pusilla, Solanum nigrum, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus retroflexus, Nigella arvensis, Galinsoga parviflora, and Brassica rapa, were exposed to concentrations of 0, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 mg/kg dw of LAS. Plants were exposed for 14 days, after which their weights were determined. The following EC50s were found:

Malva pusilla 204 mg/kg dw, Solanum nigrum 169 mg/kg dw, Chenopodium album 164 mg/kg dw, Amaranthus retroflexus 142 mg/kg dw, Nigella arvensis 133 mg/kg dw, Galinsoga parviflora 90 mg/kg dw, and Brassica rapa 164 mg/kg dw.

The following EC10s were found: Malva pusilla 110 mg/kg dw, Solanum nigrum 120 mg/kg dw, Chenopodium album 120 mg/kg dw, Amaranthus retroflexus 110 mg/kg dw, Nigella arvensis 52 mg/kg dw, Galinsoga parviflora 55 mg/kg dw, and Brassica rapa 86 mg/kg dw.

Description of key information

A series of studies conducted with LAS on terrestrial plants are summarized below.

Study 1 (C11 LAS):

The toxicity of C11 LAS, sodium salt to three species of plants – sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) - was determined according to OECD Guideline 208. Seeds of these three species were grown in soil containing concentrations of the test ingredient of 0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 mg a.i./kg soil dry weight (dw). The emergence and growth of seedlings was monitored for 21 d. There was a decrease in emergence of all three species at the highest concentration, with some shoots barely emerging, and stunted and dying. The NOEC (growth) for all three species was 100 mg a.i./kg soil dw. The 21 d EC50 was 167, 289 and 316 mg a.i./kg dw for sorghum, sunflower and mung bean, respectively (Windeat, 1987).

Study 2 (C10-13 LAS):

Three species of crop plant – oat (Avena sativa), oilseed rape (Brassica rapa) and white mustard (Sinapsis alba) - were grown in soil containing concentrations of C10-13 LAS, sodium salt that varied from 0 -10,000 mg/kg soil dw. The seedlings were grown for 14 d, then weighed. The weight was compared to weights of controls plants. All three species showed a dose-related reduction in growth. The EC10 for A. sativa was 80 mg/kg soil dw, for B. rapa 86 mg/kg soil dw and for S. alba 200 mg/kg soil dw (Gunther, 1992).

Study 3 (C10-13 LAS):

Plants from seven different species - Malva pusilla, Solanum nigrum, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus retroflexus, Nigella arvensis, Galinsoga parviflora and Brassica rapa - were exposed to concentrations of 0, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 mg/kg dw of C10-13 LAS, sodium salt for 14 d, after which their weights were determined.

The following EC50s were found: Malva pusilla 204 mg/kg soil dw, Solanum nigrum 169 mg/kg soil dw, Chenopodium album 164 mg/kg soil dw, Amaranthus retroflexus 142 mg/kg soil dw, Nigella arvensis 133 mg/kg soil dw, Galinsoga parviflora 90 mg/kg soil dw, and Brassica rapa 164 mg/kg soil dw.

The following EC10s were found: Malva pusilla 110 mg/kg soil dw, Solanum nigrum 120 mg/kg soil dw, Chenopodium album 120 mg/kg soil dw, Amaranthus retroflexus 110 mg/kg soil dw, Nigella arvensis 52 mg/kg soil dw, Galinsoga parviflora 55 mg/kg soil dw, and Brassica rapa 86 mg/kg soil dw (Marschner, 1992).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information