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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
1989-10-31 to 1989-11-2
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Measurement of test concentration is not available.
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: Samples for analysis of each concentration tested were taken at 0, 24 and 48 h
- Sampling method: The samples were taken in glass bottles and preserved by adding 1 ml of 37% formalin in 99 ml of test sample solution
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: Not available
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: 200 mg of Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (E-3474.01) was accurately weighed out and dissolved in 2000 ml of dilution water, resulting in a solution containing 100 mg/L. From this solution 32, 56, 100, 180, 320 and 560 ml were taken and diluted with dilution water to one liter. These solutions, containing 3.2, 5.6,10, 18, 32 and 56 mg/L and the solution containing 100 mg/L were used as test solutions; portions of 100 ml of each test solution were placed in each of four 150 ml beakers.
- Controls: Control vessel contained 100% dilution water.
- Evidence of undissolved material: None
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Daphnia magna
- Strain: Daphnia magna Straus 1820
- Source: TNO Nutrition and Food Research Institute Laboratory culture
- Age at study initiation: <24 h old
- Weight, length at study initiation: Not available
- Method of breeding: Organisms were cultured in laboratory kept under conditions specified in NPR 6503
- Feeding during test: Not fed

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Not available
- Acclimation conditions: Not available
- Type and amount of food: Not available
- Feeding frequency: Not available
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): Not available
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
The hardness of the test solution was 215 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
Temperature was maintained at 20±1°C
pH:
pH was measured at 0 and 48 h. Overall, pH ranged 7.9-8.1. For details refer to the Table 1 in "Any other information on materials and methods inc. tables".
Dissolved oxygen:
DO was measured at 0 and 48 h. Overall, DO ranged 8.8-9.6 mg/L. For details refer to the Table 2 in "Any other information on materials and methods inc. tables".
Control: range 8.8-9.5 mg/L
3.2 mg/L: range 8.8-9.3 mg/L
5.6 mg/L: range 8.7-9.1 mg/L
10 mg/L: range 8.8-9.4 mg/L
18 mg/L: range 8.8-9.3 mg/L
32 mg/L and 56 mg/L: range 8.8-9.2 mg/L
100 mg/L: range 8.8-9.6 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal test concentrations based on the test material as received were 0, 3.2, 5.6, 10, 18, 32, 56 and 100 mg/L. The test material contained 12.09% active. Samples were taken for analytical measurement of test concentrations, but those results are not available in this study report. Nominal test concentrations, based on active ingredient, were: 0, 0.39, 0.68, 1.21, 2.18, 3.87, 6.77, and 12.1 mg/L.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material: 150 ml glass beakers, containing 100 ml test solution.
- Aeration: Not aerated
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4
- Biomass loading rate: 100 ml of test solution/5 organisms = 20 ml test solution per organism

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: The dilution water was prepared by the addition of several salts to groundwater from a locality near Linschoten (The Netherlands). The composition of the dilution water (DSWL) was Na+: 1.20 mmol/L, K+: 0.23 mmol/L, Cl-: 2.59 mmol/L, SO4:2-: 0.67 mmol/L, HCO3-: 1.39mmol/L and contained several other trace elements (<<1mg/L). Water had hardness of 215 mg/L as CaCO3, pH of 8-8.2. This DSWL had proven to be suitable for the culture of the test organism used in this test.
- Total organic carbon: Not available
- Particulate matter: Not available
- Metals: Not available
- Pesticides: Not available
- Chlorine: Not available
- Alkalinity: Not available
- Ca/mg ratio: 1.37 mmol/L Ca 2+/ 0.78mmol/L Mg+2
- Conductivity: Not available
- Culture medium different from test medium: Not specified in the study report.
- Intervals of water quality measurement: pH and DO were measured at the beginning and at the end of the test. Temperature was maintained constant throughout the test.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: No
- Photoperiod: 16 h light and 8 h dark
- Light intensity: Not available

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: The immobile animals were counted after 24 h and 48 h. At the same time, the condition (Swimming behaviour, color or any other observable morphological or behavioural criterium) of the mobile animals was visually compared with that of the control animals (blanks)

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 1.8
- Range finding study: Yes (details not available in the study report).
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
2.9 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 2.5-3.5 mg/L
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
6.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 5.4-7.5 mg/L
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: At some test concentrations, the daphnids moved irregularly and more slowly than controls (For details refer Table 1 in " Any other information on results inc. tables")
- Observations on body length and weight: None
- Other biological observations: At some test concentrations, some daphnids were paler than the controls (For details refer Table 1 in " Any other information on results inc. tables")
- Mortality of control: 0%
- Other adverse effects control: None
- Abnormal responses: None
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: No
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The EC50 values and their confidence intervals were calculated by means of a parametric model developed by a Kooijiman.

Table 1: Number of mobile animals and their condition at several concentrations of E-3474.01 (ETS 311) and after several exposure times(a, b, cand d are quadruplicate test vessels).

Time (h)

Concentration of test substance (mg.l"1)

0

3.2

5.6

10

a

b

c

d

a

b

c

d

a

b

c

d

a

b

c

d

0

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

24

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

48

51)

51)

51)

51)

52)

52)

52)

52)

52)

52)

52)

53)4)

43)4)

53)4)

53)4)

53)4)

Time (h)

Concentration of test substance (mg.l'1)

18

32

56

100

a

b

c

d

a

b

c

d

a

b

c

d

a

b

c

d

0

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

24

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

1

3

3

3

0

0

0

0

48

43)4)

43)4)

33)4)

33)4)

13)4)5)

23)4)5)

33)4)5)

23)4)5)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1)     Condition of all test animals, visually assessed, normal (= good),

2)     Condition of all test animals, visually assessed, equal to that of the control animals.

3)     The quoted number animals were mobile, according to the definition given in OECD Guideline no. 202, but their condition (see section 2.4) was not equal to that of the control animals; they moved irregularly and more slowly than the controls.

4)   The quoted number of mobile animals was paler than the control animals.

5) The animals were almost immobile

Table 2: Effect of test substance E-3474.01 (ETS 311) in Daphnia magna  

Parameter Effect Nominal concentration (95% CI) mg/L (based on test concentration) Nominal concentration (95% CI) mg/L (based on active ingredient)
24 h EC50 Mobility 53 (45-62) 6.4 (5.4-7.5)
48 h EC50 Mobility 24 (21-29) 2.9 (2.5-3.5)
48 h EC100 Mobility 56 6.7
48 h NOEC Mobility 10 1.21
48 h NOEC Condition 5.6 0.67
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
(All criteria of OECD 202 were met)
Conclusions:
The 48-hour EC50 of Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS ex Petresa) to Daphnia magna was 2.9 mg/L based on nominal concentration of the active ingredient.
Executive summary:

In a 48 h acute toxicity study, Daphnia magna were exposed to Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS ex Petresa) at nominal concentrations of 0 (Control), 0.39, 0.68, 1.21, 2.18, 3.87, 6.77, and 12.1 mg/L under static condition, based on active ingredient of the test material.

The 48 h EC50 value based on mobility was 2.9 mg a.i./L with 95% CL of 2.5 to 3.5 mg/L. This toxicity study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the guideline requirement for the current OECD 202 Daphnia acute toxicity study.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
2003-07-15 To 2003-10-17
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Justification for type of information:
Refer to the section 13 of the dataset for details on the read across justification.
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
(Analytical monitoring of the test susbtance was not performed)
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
(Study conducted at P&G by Environmental Safety Department scientists well experienced in aquatic toxicity testing, and well documented.)
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Stock solutions were prepared immediately prior to beginning (1000 mg/L in high quality water). Dosing solutions were individually prepared in ESD-Blended Water in 500 mL volumetric cylinders.
- Controls: 100% dilution water
- Evidence of undissolved material (e.g. precipitate, surface film, etc): None
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Daphnia magna
- Strain: Not available
- Source: Aquatic Research Organisms. P.O. Box 1271. One Lafayette Road, Hampton, NH 03843
- Age at study initiation: < 24 hour old
- Weight, Length at study initiation: Not available
- Method of breeding: Daphnids utilized in tests were obtained from productive females held in groups in 2 L crystallizing dishes filled with approximately 1.5- 1.75 L of dilution medium. The day prior to testing, females were removed from batch cultures to isolate released young.
- Feeding during test: No

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Cultured and tested under same conditions
- Acclimation conditions: Same as test
- Type and amount of food: An algae mixture of Ankistrodesmus falcactus, Chlamydomonas rheinhardtii, and Scendesmus quaddricauda
- Feeding frequency: Not available
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): Not available
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not applicable
Hardness:
The total hardness of the dilution water was ~180 mg/L (range of 161- 212)
Test temperature:
The test temparature was 22.0 - 22.4 degree C throughout the test.
pH:
pH was measured at 0 and 48 hours of the test. Overall, pH ranged 7.61- 8.59. Details on pH measurements are provided in a Table below.
Dissolved oxygen:
DO concentration was measured at 0 and 48 hours of the test. Overall, DO concentration ranged 7.6- 8.5 mg/L. Details on DO measurements are provided in a Table below.
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal test concentrations for C13 LAS were 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/L, based on the active ingredient in the test material.
No measurement of test concentrations.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 250 mL glass beakers containing 100 mL of test solution
- Aeration: Not available
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2
- Biomass loading rate: 100 mL of test solution/10 organisms: 10 mL per organism

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: The dilution water was "ESD Blended water," which is a mixture of well water and RO water.
- Total organic carbon: Not available
- Particulate matter: Not available
- Metals: Not available
- Pesticides: Not available
- Chlorine: Not available
- Alkalinity: 117 - 141 mg/L
- Ca/mg ratio: Not available
- Conductivity: 345 - 375 mg/L
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: DO, temperature, pH , Alkalinity, Hardness and Conductivity were measured at 0 and 48 hour of the test.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Not applicable
- Photoperiod: 16 hour light: 8 hour dark
- Light intensity: Not available

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality at 0, 24, 48 hours

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2
- Range finding study: Yes
- Test concentrations: Not available
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: yes
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
2.55 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 2.12 - 3.07 mg/L
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: None
- Observations on body length and weight: No
- Other biological observations: No
- Mortality of control: 0%
- Other adverse effects control: None
- Abnormal responses: None
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: No
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Mortality results were summarized using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method, Version 1.5 to generate 48 hour LC50 statistics.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The 48 hour LC50 value of C13-LAS to Daphnia magna was 2.55 mg/L, based on nominal concentrations of active ingredient.
Executive summary:

In a 48 hour acute toxicity study, Daphnia magna were exposed to C13 -LAS at nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg a.i./L under static conditions.

The 48 hour LC50 value was 2.55 (95% CL: 2.12 - 3.07) mg a.i /L, based on nominal concentration.

This toxicity study followed method equivalent to OECD guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. acute immobilsation test), fulfilled its requirements and is classified as acceptable.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
2003-07-15 To 2003-10-17
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Justification for type of information:
Refer to the section 13 of the dataset for details on the read across justification.
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The aim of this study was to determine acute aquatic toxicity of C13 linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (C13 LAS) for Ceriodaphnia dubia. Two replicates of ten daphnids/concentration were exposed to 0 (control), 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg/L (nominal concentrations) for 48 hours under static conditions. Mortality was the recorded at 24 and 48 hours of exposure. Temperature was recorded at the time of observation. Dissolved oxygen, pH, alkalinity, hardness and conductivity were recored at the test initiation while only dissolved oxygen and pH were recored at the conclusion of test. Based on the percent mortality, the 48 hour LC50 value was determined using Trimmed Spearman-Karber method.
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
(Study conducted at P&G by Environmental Safety Department scientists well experienced in aquatic toxicity testing, and well documented.)
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Stock solutions were prepared immediately prior to beginning the test (1000 mg/L in high quality water). Dosing solutions were individually prepared in East Fork Lake water in 500 mL volumetric cylinders.
- Controls: 100% dilution water
- Evidence of undissolved material (e.g. precipitate, surface film, etc): None
Test organisms (species):
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Ceriodaphnia dubia
- Strain: Not available
- Source: Aquatic Research Organisms. P.O. Box 1271. One Lafayette Road, Hampton, NH 03843
- Age at study initiation: < 24 hours old
- Weight, Length at study initiation: Not available
- Method of breeding: Daphnids utilized in tests were obtained from productive females held in groups in 1 L glass beakers filled with approximately 1 L of dilution medium. The day prior to testing, females were removed from batch cultures to isolate released young. Ceriodaphnia were cultured in filtered East Fork Lake water.
- Feeding during test: No

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Cultured and tested under same conditions
- Acclimation conditions: Same as test
- Type and amount of food: An algae mixture of Ankistrodesmus falcactus, Chlamydomonas rheinhardtii, and Scendesmus quaddricauda
- Feeding frequency: Not available
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): Not available
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not applicable
Hardness:
The total hardness of the dilution water was ~140 mg/L (range of 131 - 164)
Test temperature:
The test temparature was 23.0 - 24.9 degree C throughout the test.
pH:
pH was measured at 0 and 48 hours of the test. Overall, pH ranged 8.31 - 8.89. Details on pH measurements are provided in a Table below.
Dissolved oxygen:
DO concentration was measured at 0 and 48 hours of the test. Overall, DO concentration ranged 7.0- 8.2 mg/L. Details on DO measurements are provided in a Table below.
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal test concentrations for C13 LAS were 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/L, based on the active ingredient in the test material.
No measurement of test concentrations.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 50 mL glass beakers containing 25 mL of test solution
- Aeration: Not available
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2
- Biomass loading rate: 25 mL of test solution/10 organisms: 2.5 mL per organism

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: The dilution water was filtered East Fork Lake water. The water was filtered through Whatman No. 1 paper, then through 0.45 µm pore filters.
- Total organic carbon: Not available
- Particulate matter: Not available
- Metals: Not available
- Pesticides: Not available
- Chlorine: Not available
- Alkalinity: 116 - 122 mg/L
- Ca/mg ratio: Not available
- Conductivity: 290 - 295 mg/L
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: DO, temperature, pH were measured at 0 and 48 hours of the test. Alkalinity, Hardness and Conductivity were measured at time 0, but there was insufficient test medium to measure alkalinity, hardness, and conductivity at 48 hours of the test.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Not applicable
- Photoperiod: 16 hours light: 8 hours dark
- Light intensity: Not available

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality at 0, 24, 48 hours

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2
- Range finding study: Yes
- Test concentrations: Not available
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: yes.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
1.85 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 1.6 - 2.2 mg/L
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: None
- Observations on body length and weight: No
- Other biological observations: No
- Mortality of control: 5%
- Other adverse effects control: None
- Abnormal responses: None
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: No
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Mortality results were summarized using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method, Version 1.5 to generate 48 hour LC50 statistics.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
The 48 hour LC50 value of C13-LAS to Ceriodaphnia dubia was 1.85 mg/L, based on nominal concentrations of active ingredient.
Executive summary:

In a 48 hour acute toxicity study, Ceriodaphnia dubia were exposed to C13-LAS at nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg a.i./L under static conditions.

The 48 hour LC50 value was 1.85 (95% CL: 1.6 - 2.2) mg a.i /L, based on nominal concentration.

This toxicity study is well documented, meets general scientific principles and acceptable for assessment.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
2003-10-15 to 2003-10-17
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Justification for type of information:
Refer to the section 13 of the dataset for details on the read across justification.
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
(Analytical monitoring of the test susbtance was not performed)
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
(Study conducted at P&G by Environmental Safety Department scientists well experienced in aquatic toxicity testing, and well documented.)
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Stock solutions were prepared immediately prior to beginning (1000 mg/L in high quality water). Dosing solutions were individually prepared in ESD-Blended Water in 500 mL volumetric cylinders.
- Controls: 100% dilution water
- Evidence of undissolved material (e.g. precipitate, surface film, etc): None
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Daphnia magna
- Strain: Not available
- Source: Aquatic Research Organisms. P.O. Box 1271. One Lafayette Road, Hampton, NH 03843
- Age at study initiation: < 24 hours old
- Weight, Length at study initiation: Not available
- Method of breeding: Daphnids utilized in tests were obtained from productive females held in groups in 2 L crystallizing dishes filled with approximately 1.5- 1.75 L of dilution medium. The day prior to testing, females were removed from batch cultures to isolate released young.
- Feeding during test: No

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Cultured and tested under same conditions
- Acclimation conditions: Same as test
- Type and amount of food: An algae mixture of Ankistrodesmus falcactus, Chlamydomonas rheinhardtii, and Scendesmus quaddricauda
- Feeding frequency: Not available
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): Not available
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not applicable
Hardness:
The total hardness of the dilution water was ~180 mg/L (range of 161 - 191).
Test temperature:
The test temparature was 22.0 - 22.4 degree C throughout the test.
pH:
pH was measured at 0 and 48 hours of the test. Overall, pH ranged 7.61 - 8.60. Details on pH measurements are provided in a Table below.
Dissolved oxygen:
DO concentration was measured at 0 and 48 hours of the test. Overall, DO concentration ranged 7.6- 8.5 mg/L. Details on DO measurements are provided in a Table below.
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal test concentrations for C14-LAS based on 95.44% active were 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/L. No measurement of test concentrations.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 250 mL glass beakers containing 100 mL of test solution
- Aeration: Not available
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2
- Biomass loading rate: 100 mL of test solution/10 organisms: 10 mL per organism

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: The dilution water was "ESD Blended water," which is a mixture of well water and RO water.
- Total organic carbon: Not available
- Particulate matter: Not available
- Metals: Not available
- Pesticides: Not available
- Chlorine: Not available
- Alkalinity: 117 - 143 mg/L
- Ca/mg ratio: Not available
- Conductivity: 345 - 370 mg/L
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: DO, temperature, pH , Alkalinity, Hardness and Conductivity were measured at 0 and 48 hours of the test.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Not applicable
- Photoperiod: 16 hours light: 8 hours dark
- Light intensity: Not available

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality at 0, 24, 48 hours.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2
- Range finding study: Yes
- Test concentrations: Not available
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: yes.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
1.11 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 0.96 - 1.3 mg/L
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: None
- Observations on body length and weight: No
- Other biological observations: No
- Mortality of control: 0%
- Other adverse effects control: None
- Abnormal responses: None
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: No
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Mortality results were summarized using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method, Version 1.5 to generate 48 hour LC50 statistics.

Table 2: Acute toxicity of C14 LAS to Daphnia magna (study # 65613)

Test Material

Concentration
(mg/L)

24 hour

48 hour

C14 LAS

0

0

0

0.25

0

0

0.5

0

0

1

0

35

2

95

100

4

100

100

LAS: linear alkylbenzene sulfonate.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The 48 hour LC50 of Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (C14 LAS) to Daphnia magna was 1.11 mg/L, based on nominal concentrations of active ingredient.
Executive summary:

In a 48 hour acute toxicity study, Daphnia magna were exposed to Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (C14-LAS) at nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg a.i./L under static conditions.

The 48 hour LC50 value was 1.11 mg (95% CL: 0.96 - 1.3) mg a.i /L, based on nominal test concentrations.

This toxicity study followed method equivalent to OECD guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. acute immobilsation test), fulfilled its requirements and is classified as acceptable.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
2003-10-15 to 2003-10-17
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Justification for type of information:
Refer to the section 13 of the dataset for details on the read across justification.
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The aim of this study was to determine acute aquatic toxicity of C14 linear alkylbenzene sulphonate ( C14 LAS) for Ceriodaphnia dubia. Two replicates of ten daphnids/concentration were exposed to 0 (control), 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/L (nominal concentrations) for 48 hours under static conditions. Mortality was the recorded at 24 and 48 hours of exposure. Temperature was recorded at the time of observation. Dissolved oxygen, pH, alkalinity, hardness and conductivity were recored at the test initiation while only dissolved oxygen and pH were recored at the conclusion of test. Based on the percent mortality, the 48 hour LC50 value was determined using Trimmed Spearman-Karber method.
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
(Study conducted at P&G by Environmental Safety Department scientists well experienced in aquatic toxicity testing, and well documented.)
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Stock solutions were prepared immediately prior to beginning the test (1000 mg/L in high quality water). Dosing solutions were individually prepared in East Fork Lake water in 500 mL volumetric cylinders.
- Controls: 100% dilution water
- Evidence of undissolved material (e.g. precipitate, surface film, etc): None
Test organisms (species):
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Ceriodaphnia dubia
- Strain: Not available
- Source: Aquatic Research Organisms. P.O. Box 1271. One Lafayette Road, Hampton, NH 03843
- Age at study initiation: < 24 hour old
- Weight, Length at study initiation: Not available
- Method of breeding: Daphnids utilized in tests were obtained from productive females held in groups in 1 L glass beakers filled with approximately 1 L of dilution medium. The day prior to testing, females were removed from batch cultures to isolate released young. Ceriodaphnia were cultured in filtered East Fork Lake water.
- Feeding during test: No

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Cultured and tested under same conditions
- Acclimation conditions: Same as test
- Type and amount of food: An algae mixture of Ankistrodesmus falcactus, Chlamydomonas rheinhardtii, and Scendesmus quaddricauda
- Feeding frequency: Not available
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): Not available
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not applicable
Hardness:
The total hardness of the dilution water was ~150 mg/L (range of 147 - 161).
Test temperature:
The test temparature was 23.0 - 24.9 degree C throughout the test.
pH:
pH was measured at 0 and 48 hours of the test. Overall, pH ranged 8.33 - 8.89. Details on pH measurements are provided in a Table below.
Dissolved oxygen:
DO concentration was measured at 0 and 48 hours of the test. Overall, DO concentration ranged 7.1- 8.2 mg/L. Details on DO measurements are provided in a Table below.
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal test concentrations for C14-LAS based on 95.44% active were 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/L. No measurement of test concentrations.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 50 mL glass beakers containing 25 mL of test solution
- Aeration: Not available
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2
- Biomass loading rate: 25 mL of test solution/10 organisms: 2.5 mL per organism

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: The dilution water was filtered East Fork Lake water. The water was filtered through Whatman No. 1 paper, then through 0.45 µm pore filters.
- Total organic carbon: Not available
- Particulate matter: Not available
- Metals: Not available
- Pesticides: Not available
- Chlorine: Not available
- Alkalinity: 113 - 126
- Ca/mg ratio: Not available
- Conductivity: 290 - 295 mg/L
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: DO, temperature, pH were measured at 0 and 48 hour of the test. Alkalinity, Hardness and Conductivity were measured at time 0, but there was insufficient test medium to measure alkalinity, hardness, and conductivity at 48 hour of the test.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Not applicable
- Photoperiod: 16 hour light: 8 hour dark
- Light intensity: Not available

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality at 0, 24, 48 hours

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2
- Range finding study: Yes
- Test concentrations: Not available
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: Yes.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
0.85 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 0.72 - 1.0 mg/L
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: None
- Observations on body length and weight: No
- Other biological observations: No
- Mortality of control: 5%
- Other adverse effects control: None
- Abnormal responses: None
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: No
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Mortality results were summarized using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method, Version 1.5 to generate 48 hour LC50 statistics.

Table 2: Acute toxicity of C14 LAS to Ceriodaphnia dubia (study # 65613)

Test Material

Concentration
(mg/L)

24 hour

48 hour

C14 LAS

0

5

5

0.25

5

10

0.5

10

10

1

50

70

2

90

100

4

100

100

LAS: linear alkylbenzene sulfonate.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
The 48 hour LC50 of Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (C14 LAS) to Ceriodaphnia dubia was 0.85 mg/L, based on nominal concentrations of active ingredient.
Executive summary:

In a 48 hour acute toxicity study, Ceriodaphnia dubia were exposed to linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (C14-LAS) at nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg a.i./L under static conditions.

The 48 hour LC50 value was 0.85 (95% CL: 0.72 - 1.0) mg a.i /L, based on nominal test concentrations.

This toxicity study is well documented, meets general scientific principles and acceptable for assessment.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
From Jul. 15, 2003 to Oct. 17, 2003
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: USEPA, EPA/6000-4-85-013. (Reliability, deviations and validity evaluated against the criteria of USEPA 850.1010, 1996)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
(Study conducted at P&G by Environmental Safety Department scientists well experienced in aquatic toxicity testing, and well documented)
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Stock solutions were prepared immediately prior to beginning the test at a test concentration of 1000 mg/L in high quality water. Dosing solutions were individually prepared in ESD-Blended Water in 500 ml volumetric cylinders.
- Controls: 100% dilution water
- Evidence of undissolved material (e.g. precipitate, surface film, etc): None
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Daphnia magna
- Strain: Not available
- Source: Aquatic Research Organisms. P.O. Box 1271. One Lafayette Road, Hampton, NH 03843
- Age at study initiation: < 24 hours old
- Weight, Length at study initiation: Not available
- Method of breeding: Daphnids utilized in tests were obtained from productive females held in groups in 2 L crystallizing dishes filled with approximately 1.5- 1.75 L of dilution medium. The day prior to testing, females were removed from batch cultures to isolate released young.
- Feeding during test: No

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Cultured and tested under same conditions
- Acclimation conditions: Same as test
- Type and amount of food: An algae mixture of Ankistrodesmus falcactus, Chlamydomonas
rheinhardtii, and Scendesmus quaddricauda
- Feeding frequency: Not available
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): Not available
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not applicable
Hardness:
LAS-Veneco and LAS-Pantera: 179-207 mg/L
Control: 175-181 mg/L
Test temperature:
Control, LAS-Veneco and LAS-Pantera: 22-22.3°C
pH:
Control, LAS-Veneco and LAS-Pantera: 22-22.3°C
Dissolved oxygen:
LAS-Veneco: 7.7-8.4 mg/L
LAS-Pantera: 7.7-8.2 mg/L
Control: 8.2-9.1 mg/L
Conductivity:
LAS-Veneco and LAS-Pantera: 380-395 µmhos/cm
Control: 360 µmhos/cm
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations: 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg/L, based on the active ingredient in the test material.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 250 mL glass beakers containing 100 mL of test solution
- Aeration: Not available
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2
- Biomass loading rate: 100 mL of test solution/10 organisms = 10 mL per organism

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: The dilution (culture) water was "ESD Blended water," which is a mixture of South West well water and Reverse Osmosis water.
- Total organic carbon: Not available
- Particulate matter: Not available
- Metals: Not available
- Pesticides: Not available
- Chlorine: Not available
- Alkalinity: 134-143 mg/L (Control), 129- 154 mg/L (LAS Veneco) and 142 - 150 mg/L (LAS Pantera)
- Ca/mg ratio: Not available
- Conductivity: 380-395 µmhos/cm (LAS-Veneco and LAS-Pantera) and 360 µmhos/cm (Control)
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, alkalinity, hardness and conductivity were measured at 0 and 48 hours of the test.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Not applicable
- Photoperiod: 16 hours light and 8 hours dark
- Light intensity: Not available
EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Mortality was observed at 0, 24 and 48 hours of the test.
TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2
- Range finding study: Yes
- Test concentrations: Not available
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: yes
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
7.01 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 6.28- 7.82 mg/L for LAS Veneco
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
9.15 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 7.92- 10.52mg/L for LAS Pantera
Details on results:
- Behavioral abnormalities: None
- Observations on body length and weight: No
- Other biological observations: No
- Mortality of control: 0%
- Other adverse effects control: None
- Abnormal responses: None
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal
values: No
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Mortality results were summarized using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method, Version 1.5 to generate 48 hour LC50 statistics.

LAS Veneco displayed moderate toxicity with a 48-hour LC50 of 7.01 mg/L while LAS Pantera showed slightly less toxicity with a 48-hour LC50 of 9.15 mg/L. Confidence limits do not overlap nor do they contain the 48-hour LC50s of the other material (i.e., the 48-hour LC50 of LAS Veneco is outside the confidence intervals of LAS Pantera). This suggests these are different materials with the average chain length of LAS Veneco being 11.75 and LAS Pantera being 11.58.

Table 1: Acute toxicity (% mortality) of LAS Veneco to Daphnia magna (study# 65613).

Concentration (in mg/L) % mortality after 24 hours % mortality after 48 hours
0 0 0
2 0 0
4 5 10
6 0 15
8 10 70
10 45 95

Table 2: Acute toxicity (% mortality) of LAS Pantera to Daphnia magna (study# 65613).

Concentration (in mg/L) % mortality after 24 hours % mortality after 48 hours
0 0 0
2 0 0
4 0 10
6 5 30
8 5 35
10 20 60

Table 3: Acute Toxicity of LAS to Daphnia and Ceriodaphnia: Summary (study #65613)

LAS substance 48 hour LC50 (mg/L) for Daphnia magna 48 hour LC50 (mg/L) for Ceriodaphnia dubia
C10 LAS 15.2 21.8
C11 LAS 12.2 9.47
C12 LAS 6.06 3
C13 LAS 2.55 1.85
C14 LAS 1.11 0.85
LAS-Veneco (C10-C14) 7.01 (95% CI: 6.28-7.82)  4.98 (95% CI: 4.82-5.16)
LAS-Pantera (C10-C14) 9.15 (95% CI: 7.92-10-52) 6.6 (95% CI: 6.10-7.14)
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
(All criteria of U.S. EPA OPPTS 850.1010 were met.)
Conclusions:
The 48 hour LC50 values were 7.01 (95% CL: 6.28 - 7.82) mg/L for LAS Veneco and 9.15 (95% CL of 7.9 - 10.5) mg/L for LAS-Pantera. Results are based on nominal concentrations of active ingredient.
Executive summary:

In a 48 hour acute toxicity study, Daphnia magna were exposed to LAS-Veneco and LAS-Pantera at nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mg a.i./L under static conditions.

Daphnids were reared in ESD blended water (mix of well and RO water), with continuous batch cultures and kept under static system. Water quality parameters i.e. pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, hardness and conductivity were at the initiation and at the conclusion of the test.

Mortality results were analysed using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method, version 1.5.

The 48 hour LC50 values were 7.01 (95% CL: 6.28 - 7.82) mg/L for LAS Veneco and 9.15 (95% CL of 7.9 - 10.5) mg/L for LAS-Pantera. Results are based on nominal concentrations of active ingredient.

This toxicity study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the guideline requirement for the current US EPA OPPTS 850.1010 Daphnia acute toxicity study.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
From May 20, 1988 to May 28, 1988
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Justification for type of information:
Refer to the section 13 of the dataset for details on the read across justification.
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Mature Hyalella azeteca were exposed to the test substance at concentrations of 0, 0.63, 1.3, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 mg active ingredient/L for 192 h. The Hyalella were observed for mortality after 48, 96, 144 and 192 h. Results were analysed for the calculation LC50.
GLP compliance:
yes
Remarks:
(According to EPA GLP)
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION: 20 mg/L stock solution was prepared by diluting 0.0212 g of test material in 1000 mL of distilled water. The test solutions were prepared by adding the appropriate volume of stock solution to dilution water to provide the required total solution volume. Each test solution was mixed on a magnetic stirrer for approximately 30 sec and then divided into the appropriate replicate exposure vessels.
Test organisms (species):
other aquatic crustacea: Hyalella azteca
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Amphipod
- Strain: Not reported
- Source: Springborn Life Sciences (SLS) culture facility
- Maintenance of stock culture: The culture water was well water with dissolved oxygen (in mg/L), pH and temperature (°C) of 8.4-8.7, 7.4 and 20, respectively. The culture areas received regulated photoperiod of 16 h light and 8 h darkness. The stock cultures were fed a solution of trout chow and a chocolate food supplement once each day. A temperature controlled water bath was used to maintain the culture solution temperatures at 20 ± 2 °C.
- Age at study initiation: Mature animals were used in the study
- Weight, length at study initiation: Not reported. All animals were of same size
- Method of breeding: Not specified
- Feeding during test: Animals were not fed during the 96 h exposure period. However, animals were fed solution of trout chow and a chocolate food supplement when test was extended beyond 96 h

ACCLIMATION: Acclimation period/conditions not reported in the study

Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
192 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
As the difference between the 48 and 96 h LC50 value exceeded a factor of two, the exposure was extended after 96 h to 144 h and then again to 192 h when an asymptotic LC50 had been reached.
Post exposure observation period:
None
Hardness:
24-30 mg/L CaCO3 (measured by the EDTA titrimetric method)
Test temperature:
21-22 °C (measured with Brooklyn alcohol thermometer)
pH:
7.1, ranged 6.7- 8.5 (measured by La Motte pH meter and combination electrode)
Dissolved oxygen:
Ranged 3.0-8.8 mg/L (measured with a YSI Model #57 dissolved oxygen meter and probe)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal test concentrations were: 0, 0.63, 1.3, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 mg active ingredient/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: Glass beaker
- Type: Closed. (All beakers were covered with clear plastic wrap)
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 100 mL glass beaker containing 80 mL of exposure solution. The exposure solution was 4.6 cm deep, with a surface area of 1.6 cm2.
- Aeration: Yes. Aeration was initiated after Day 6 of the study to maintain appropriate dissolved oxygen levels
- No. of organisms per vessel: 1
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 10
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 10
- Biomass loading rate: 1 animal/80 mL test solution

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Well water obtained from 100 m deep bedrock well
- Total organic carbon: Not reported
- Particulate matter: Not reported
- Metals: Not reported
- Pesticides: Not reported
- Chlorine: Not reported
- Total alkalinity: 22-24 mg/L as CaCO3 (potentiometric titration to an endpoint of pH 4.5)
- Ca/mg ratio: Not reported
- Specific conductivity: 90 - 110 µmhos/cm (measured by yellow springs Instrument Company Model #33 salinity-conductivity-temperature meter and probe)
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Observation of physical and biological characteristics of each replicate test solution were recorded at least every 48 h during the exposure period. The pH, dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature were measured at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 160 and 192 h in the vessel of the two highest treatment levels and the control.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Not reported
- Photoperiod: 16 h of light and 8 h of darkness
- Light intensity: 200 footcandles (Sylvania GRO-LUX® and Cool White® fluorescent lights). Light intensity was measured with General Electric type 214 light meter

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Hyalella were observed for mortality after 48, 96, 144 and 192 h.

NEGATIVE CONTROL PERFORMED: Yes (received only dilution water)

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2
- Range finding study: Prior to the initiation of each definitive exposure, preliminary range-finding test were conducted and data obtained from preliminary exposure was used to select the definitive test concentration
- Test concentrations: Not reported
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: Yes
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
7.6 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 4.9 - 21
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
3.5 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 2.4 - 5.3
Duration:
144 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
1.1 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 0.23 - 1.9
Duration:
192 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
0.96 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 0.29 - 1.6
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: Several of the surviving amphipods exhibited lethargic behavior. See 'Table 1' in the section 'Any other information on results'.
- Observations on body length and weight: Not reported
- Other biological observations: None
- Mortality: See Table 1 below.
- Other adverse effects control: Not reported
- Abnormal responses: Not reported
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: No visible signs of undissolved test material (e.g. precipitate, film on the solution’s surface) were observed in any exposure solution. Water quality parameters measured during each test were generally unaffected by the concentration of test material tested and remained within acceptable ranges for the survival of the exposed organisms.
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No
Reported statistics and error estimates:
If at least one test concentration caused mortality of greater than or equal to 50% of the test population, then a computer program modified from the program of C. Stephan was used to calculate the LC50 values and 95% confidence intervals. Three statistical methods were available in the computer program: moving average angle analysis, probit analysis, and nonlinear interpolation with 95% confidence intervals calculated by binomial probability. See study report for more details on statistical methods.

All LC50s for Hyalella were estimated by probit analysis (48 hr, 96 hr, 144 hr, 196 hr).

Table 1: Cumulative percent mortalities and observations made during the 96 h static exposure of amphipods to linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (Hyalella azetec) (study # 34845)

Nominal concentration (mg active ingredient/L) Percent Mortalities (%)
48 h (mean) 96 h (mean) 144 h (mean) 192 h (mean)
Control 0 0 20ef 30
0.63 0 10b 60be 60
1.3 0 0d 30ef 30
2.5 20 30b 60de 70
5 30b 60b 90de 100
10 60c 100 100 100

aValue represents the mean percent of all replicate vessesls; (N=10)

bTwo surviving amphipods exhibited lethargic behavior

cAll surviving amphipods exhibited lethargic behavior

dOne surviving amphipod exhibited lethargic behavior

eUneaten food was observed in the bottom of the beakers and caught on the amphipods

fSeveral of the surviving amphipods exhibited lethargic behavior

Results were based on 92.9% active ingredient Test material was C12.3 LAS.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
The 96 h LC50 of C12.3 LAS (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate) to amphipods (Hyalella azteca) was 3.5 mg active ingredient/L, based on nominal concentration of test substance.
Executive summary:

The 96 h LC50 of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (C12.3 LAS) to the amphipod crustacean Hyalella aztec was determined under static conditions. The nominal test concentrations were 0, 0.63, 1.3, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 mg active ingredient/L. The mortality of amphipods was determined at 48, 96, 144 and 192 h. The 96 h LC50 was 3.5 mg/L (2.4 - 5.3). LC50 values estimated for 48, 144 and 192 h were 7.6 (4.9 - 21.0), 1.1 (0.23 - 1.9) and  0.96 (0.29 - 1.6) mg active ingredient/L, respectively.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
From Apr. 21, 1988 to Apr. 25, 1988
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Justification for type of information:
Refer to the section 13 of the dataset for details on the read across justification.
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Immature larvae of midge (Chironomus riparius) were exposed to the test substance at test concentrations of 0, 1.3, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg active ingredient/L for 96 h. The midge were observed for mortality after 48 h and 96 h of test initiation. Results were analysed for the calculation of 48 h and 96 h LC50.
GLP compliance:
yes
Remarks:
(According to EPA GLP)
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION: 100 mg/L stock solution was prepared by diluting 0.1087 g of the test material in 1000 mL of distilled water. The test solutions were prepared by adding the appropriate volume of stock solution to the dilution water to provide the required total solution volume. Each test solution was mixed on a magnetic stirrer for approximately 30 seconds and then divided into the appropriate replicate exposure vessels.
Test organisms (species):
other aquatic arthropod: Chironomus riparius
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Midge
- Strain: Not reported
- Source: Springborn Life Sciences (SLS) culture facility
- Maintenance of stock culture: The culture water was well water with dissolved oxygen (mg/L), pH and temperature (°C) of 7.7, 7.3 and 19 respectively. The culture areas received regulated photoperiod of 16 h light and 8 h darkness. The stock cultures were fed a solution of trout chow and a chocolate food supplement once each day. A temperature controlled water bath was used to maintain the culture solution temperatures at 20 ± 2 °C.
- Age at study initiation: Immature larvae of same size were used in the study
- Weight, length at study initiation: Not reported. Animals of same size are used in the study.
- Method of breeding: Not specified
- Feeding during test: Animals were not fed during the exposure period

ACCLIMATION: Acclimation period/conditoins not reported in the study
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Hardness:
24-30 mg/L CaCO3 (measured by the EDTA titrimetric method)
Test temperature:
21-22 °C (measured with Brooklyn alcohol thermometer)
pH:
7.1, ranged 6.9-7.7 (measured by La Motte pH meter and combination electrode)
Dissolved oxygen:
6.9-8.8 mg/L (measured with a YSI Model #57 dissolved oxygen meter and probe)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal test concentrations were: 0, 1.3, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg active ingredient/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: Glass beaker
- Type: Open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 250 mL glass beaker containing 150 mL of exposure solution. The test solutions were 4.7 cm deep, with a surface area of 33 cm2.
- Aeration: No
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): Two
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): One
- Biomass loading rate: There were 10 animals/vessel. Loading rate was therefore 1 animal/15 mL test solution

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Well water obtained from 100 m deep bedrock well
- Total organic carbon: Not reported
- Particulate matter: Not reported
- Metals: Not reported
- Pesticides: Not reported
- Chlorine: Not reported
- Total alkalinity: 22-24 mg/L as CaCO3 (potentiometric titration to an endpoint of pH 4.5)
- Ca/mg ratio: Not reported
- Specific conductivity: 90 - 110 µmhos/cm (measured by yellow springs Instrument Company Model #33 salinity-conductivity-temperature meter and probe)
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Observation of physical and biological characteristics of each replicate test solution were recorded at least every 48 h during the exposure period. The pH, dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature were measured at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in the vessel of the highest treatment level and the control.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Not reported
- Photoperiod: 16 h of light and 8 h of darkness
- Light intensity: 200 footcandles (Sylvania GRO-LUX® and Cool White® fluorescent lights). Light intensity was measured with General Electric type 214 light meter

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Test organisms were observed for mortality after 48 and 96 h.

NEGATIVE CONTROL PERFORMED: Yes (received only dilution water)

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2
- Range finding study: Prior to the initiation of each definitive exposure, preliminary range-finding test were conducted and data obtained from preliminary exposure was used to select the definitive test concentration
- Test concentrations: Not reported
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: Yes
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
8.6 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 5.0 - 20.0
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
6.5 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 5.3 - 8.2
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: Several of the surviving midge exhibited lethargic behavior. See 'Table 1' in the section 'Any other information on results'.
- Observations on body length and weight: Not reported
- Other biological observations: None
- Mortality: Following 96 h of exposure, mortality of 100% and 95% was observed in the two highest treatment levels. Mortality of ≤5% was observed in the remaining lower treatment levels (i.e. 5, 2.5 and 1.3 mg active/L). Control mortality was 10%.
- Other adverse effects control: Other adverse effects on control are not reported in the study
- Abnormal responses: Not reported
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: No visible signs of undissolved test material (e.g. precipitate, film on the solution’s surface) were observed in any exposure solution. Water quality parameters measured during each test were generally unaffected by the concentration of test material tested and remained within acceptable ranges for the survival of the exposed organisms.
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No
Reported statistics and error estimates:
If at least one test concentration caused mortality of greater than or equal to 50% of the test population, then a computer program modified from the program of C. Stephan was used to calculate the LC50 values and 95% confidence intervals. Three statistical methods were available in the computer program: moving average angle analysis, probit analysis, and nonlinear interpolation with 95% confidence intervals calculated by binomial probability.

The 96 hr LC50 for midge was estimated by moving average angle analysis. The 48 hr LC50 for midge was estimated by non-linear interpolation (95% confidence interval calculated by binominal probability).

Table 1: Cumulative percent mortalities and observations made during the 96 h static exposure of midge (Chironomus riparius) to linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (study # 34845)

Nominal concentration (mg active ingredient/L)

Percent Mortalities (%)

48 h

96 h

A

B

Mean

A

B

Mean

Control

0

10

5

0

20

10

1.3

0

0

0

0

0

0

2.5

0

0

0

0

10

5

5

0

0

0*

0

10

5

10

80

60

70*

100

90

95**

20

100

100

100

100

100

100

* Several of the surviving midge exhibited lethargic behavior

**Surviving midge displayed lethargic behavior

Results were based on 92.9% active ingredient (C12.3LAS).

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
The 96 h LC50 of C12.3 LAS (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate) to midge (Chironomus riparius) was 6.5 mg active ingredient/L, based on nominal concentration of test substance.
Executive summary:

The 96 h LC50 of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (C12.3 LAS) to midge (Chironomus riparius) was determined under static conditions. The nominal test concentrations were 0, 1.3, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg active ingredient/L. The mortality of midge was determined at 48 h and 96 h. Mortality of ≤ 5% was observed at the three lowest test concentrations (1.3, 2.5, 5.0 mg/L). Mortality of 95-100% was observed in the two highest exposure levels (10, 20 mg/L) after 96 h. Control mortality was 10%. The 48 h and 96 h LC50 values were 8.6 (5.0 - 20.0) and 6.5 (5.3 - 8.2) mg active ingredient/L, respectively.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
From Apr. 21, 1988 to Apr. 25, 1988
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Justification for type of information:
Refer to the section 13 of the dataset for details on the read across justification.
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Mature oligochaetes (Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri) were exposed to test substance concentrations of 0, 0.31, 0.63, 1.3, 2.5 and 5.0 mg active ingredient/L for 96 h. Oligochaetes were observed for mortality after 48 h and 96 h. Results were analysed for the calculation of 48 h and 96 h LC50.
GLP compliance:
yes
Remarks:
(According to EPA GLP)
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION: 100 mg/L stock solution was prepared by diluting 0.1087 g of test material in 1000 mL of distilled water. The test solutions were prepared by adding the appropriate volume of stock solution to dilution water to provide the required total solution volume. Each test solution was mixed on a magnetic stirrer for approximately 30 seconds and then divided into the appropriate replicate exposure vessels
Test organisms (species):
other aquatic worm: Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Oligochaetes
- Strain: Not reported
- Source: Springborn Life Sciences (SLS) culture facility
- Maintenance of stock culture: The culture water was well water with dissolved oxygen (mg/L), pH and temperature (°C) of 7.6-8.3, 7.3 and 18-19, respectively. The culture areas received regulated photoperiod of 16 h light and 8 h darkness. The stock cultures were fed a solution of trout chow and a chocolate food supplement and tetra-Min (a flaked fish food) once each day. A temperature controlled water bath was used to maintain the culture solution temperatures at 20 ± 2 °C.
- Age at study initiation: Mature animals were used in the study.
- Weight, length at study initiation: Not reported. However, the animals were of same size.
- Method of breeding: Not specified
- Feeding during test: Animals were not fed during the exposure period

ACCLIMATION: Acclimation period/conditions not reported in the study
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
None
Hardness:
24-30 mg/L CaCO3 (measured by the EDTA titrimetric method)
Test temperature:
21 °C (measured with Brooklyn alcohol thermometer)
pH:
7.1, ranged 6.6-7.3 (measured by La Motte pH meter and combination electrode)
Dissolved oxygen:
Ranged 1.0-8.8 mg/L (measured with a YSI Model #57 dissolved oxygen meter and probe)
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal test concentrations were: 0, 0.31, 0.63, 1.3, 2.5 and 5.0 mg active ingredient/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: Glass beaker
- Type: Open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 250 mL glass beaker containing 150 mL of exposure solution. The exposure solution depth was 4.7 cm with a surface area of 33 cm2.
- Aeration: No
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): Two
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): One
- Biomass loading/ rate: There were 10 animals/vessel. Loading rate was therefore 1 animal/15 mL test solution.

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Well water obtained from 100 m deep bedrock well
- Total organic carbon: Not reported
- Particulate matter: Not reported
- Metals: Not reported
- Pesticides: Not reported
- Chlorine: Not reported
- Total alkalinity: 22-24 mg/L as CaCO3 (potentiometric titration to an endpoint of pH 4.5)
- Ca/mg ratio: Not reported
- Specific conductivity: 90 - 110 µmhos/cm (measured by yellow springs Instrument Company Model #33 salinity-conductivity-temperature meter and probe)
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Observation of physical and biological characteristics of each replicate test solution were recorded at least every 48 h during the exposure period. The pH, dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature were measured at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in the vessel of the highest treatment level and the control.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Not reported
- Photoperiod: 6 h of light and 8 h of darkness
- Light intensity: 200 footcandles (Sylvania GRO-LUX® and Cool White® fluorescent lights). Light intensity was measured with General Electric type 214 light meter

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: Oligochaetes were observed for mortality after 48 and 96 h of test initiation.

NEGATIVE CONTROL PERFORMED: Yes (received only dilution water)

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2
- Range finding study: Prior to the initiation of each definitive exposure, preliminary range-finding test were conducted and data obtained from preliminary exposure was used to select the definitive test concentration
- Test concentrations: Not reported
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: Yes
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
2.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 1.9 - 3.1
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
1.8 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 1.4 - 2.2
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: Several of the surviving oligochaetes exhibited lethargic behavior. See 'Table 1' in the section 'Any other information on results'.
- Observations on body length and weight: Not reported
- Other biological observations: Clumpping of oligochaetes together in a ball was observed. See 'Table 1' in the section 'Any other information on results'.
- Mortality: see Table 1 below
- Other adverse effects control: Not reported
- Abnormal responses: Not reported
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: No visible signs of undissolved test material (e.g. precipitate, film on the solution’s surface) were observed in any exposure solution. Water quality parameters measured during each test were generally unaffected by the concentration of test material tested and remained within acceptable ranges for the survival of the exposed organisms.
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No
Reported statistics and error estimates:
If at least one test concentration caused mortality of greater than or equal to 50% of the test population, then a computer program modified from the program of C. Stephan was used to calculate the LC50 values and 95% confidence intervals. Three statistical methods were available in the computer program: moving average angle analysis, probit analysis, and nonlinear interpolation with 95% confidence intervals calculated by binomial probability. See study report for more details on statistical methods.

The 96 hr LC50 for the Oligochaetes was estimated by moving average angle analysis. The 48 hr LC50 for the Oligochaetes was estimated by probit analysis.

Table 1: Cumulative percent mortalities and observations made during the 96 h static exposure of oligocheates (Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri) to linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (study # 34845)

Nominal concentration (mg active ingredient/L)

Percent Mortalities (%)

48 h

96 h

A

B

Mean

A

B

Mean

Control

0

0

0a

0

0

0

0.31

0

0

0a

0

0

0

0.63

0

0

0a

0

0

0e

1.3

20

20

20b

50

60

55b

2.5

40

70

55c

40

80

60b

5.0

90

80

85d

90

90

90b

aOligochaetes were clumped together in a ball

bAll surviving oligochaetes exhibited lethargic behavior

cSeveral surviving oligochaetes exhibited lethargic behavior

dOne surviving oligochaete exhibited lethargic behavior

eOne oligochaete body was split from its head and the head was still alive

Results were based on 92.9%active ingredient The test substance was C12.3 LAS.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
The 96 hr LC50 of C12.3 LAS (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate) to oligochaetes (Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri) was 1.8 mg active ingredient/L, based on nominal concentration of test substance.
Executive summary:

The 96 h LC50 of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (C12.3 LAS) to oligochaetes (Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri) was determined under static conditions. The nominal test concentrations were 0, 0.31, 0.63, 1.3, 2.5 and 5.0 mg active ingredient/L. The mortality of oligochaetes was determined at 48 and 96 h. The 48 and 96 h LC50 values were 2.4 (1.9 - 3.1) and 1.8 (1.4 - 2.2) mg active ingredient/L, respectively.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EU Method C.2 (Acute Toxicity for Daphnia)
Version / remarks:
Cited as Directive 84/449/EEC, C.2 (Acute toxicity for Daphnia)
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Test temperature:
20 ± 1 °C
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Analytic concentrations measured at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours for vessels
containing nominal concentrations of 3, 10, 30, 100, 300 and 1000 mg/l
were 2.7-4.6, 9.6-10.8, 26.9-28.0, 101-109, 306-322 and 956-1118 mg/l,
respectively.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 1 liter glass beaker
- fill volume: 10 ml
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water:The water used in the study was VE-water. It contained 294 mg/l CaCl2 x
2H2O, 123 mg/l MgSO4 x 7H2O, 65 mg/l NaHCO3 and 6 mg/l KCl. No other information about water quality was mentioned.

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Immobility was determined at 24 and 48 hours.

Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
potassium dicromate
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC0
Effect conc.:
ca. 50 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
65 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC100
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
28 March 2017
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with adequate and reliable documentation / justification
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Version / remarks:
QSAR is built on 48 h invertebrate toxicity studies following OECD 202 guidelines
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Experimental toxicity data for 5 pure chain length LAS were used to generate this QSAR. This model is also suitable for predicting the acute toxicity of LAS with non-integer average chain lengths (e.g. C11.75) to freshwater invertebrates, as demonstrated experimentally within Belanger et al, 2016. A linear regression was used to generate a QSAR describing the relationship between acute toxicity and chain length. The r-square of the QSAR is 0.965 and a p-value of <0.0001.

log(EC50) = -0.295x + 4.243, where x is the chain length of the alkyl carbon backbone.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
6.62 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
estimated
Conc. based on:
other: Predicted based on experimental results of LAS homolgues with chain lengths C10-14.
Details on results:
The result is predicted for an average LAS chain length of 11.6 carbons.

This experimental toxicity data was used to generate this QSAR.

 LAS Chain Length (carbons)  48 hr EC50 (mg/L)  95% CI
 C10  15.19  13.6 -16.9
 C11  12.21  10.7 -13.9
 C12  6.06  4.9 -7.4
 C13  2.55  2.1 -3.1
 C14  1.11  0.96 -1.3
Conclusions:
The 48 hour EC50 to Daphnia magna is predicted to be 6.62 mg/L for MEA-LAS with an average chain length of 11.6 carbons.
Executive summary:

The 48 hour EC50 to Daphnia magna is predicted to be 6.62 mg/L for MEA-LAS with an average chain length of 11.6 carbons.

Experimental toxicity data for 5 pure chain length LAS were used to generate this QSAR. This model is suitable for predicting the acute toxicity of LAS to an aquatic invertebrate with chain lengths ranging from 10 to 14 carbons long. This model is also suitable for predicted the toxicity of LAS with non-integer average chain lengths (e.g. C11.75), as demonstrated experimentally within this publication.

log(EC50) = -0.295x + 4.243, where x is the chain length of the alkyl carbon backbone.

The result is a local QSAR that encompasses LAS with carbon lengths ranging from 10 to 14.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
28 March 2017
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with adequate and reliable documentation / justification
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Version / remarks:
QSAR is built on 48 hour invertebrate toxicity studies following OECD 202 guidelines.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Experimental toxicity data for 5 pure chain length LAS were used to generate this QSAR. This model is suitable for predicting the acute toxicity of LAS to an aquatic invertebrate with chain lengths ranging from 10 to 14 carbons long. This model is also suitable for predicted the toxicity of LAS with non-integer average chain lengths (e.g. C11.75), as demonstrated experimentally within Belanger et al, 2016. This QSAR has an r-square of 0.985 and a p-value of <0.0001.
log(EC50) = -0.353x + 4.831, where x is the chain length of the alkyl carbon backbone.
Test organisms (species):
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Water media type:
freshwater
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
5.45 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
estimated
Conc. based on:
other: Predicted based on experimental results of LAS homologues with chain lengths C10-14.
Conclusions:
The predicted 48 hr EC50 of MEA-LAS with a chain length of 11.6 to Ceriodaphnia dubia is 5.45 mg/L.
Executive summary:

The predicted 48 hr EC50 of MEA-LAS with a chain length of 11.6 to Ceriodaphnia dubia is 5.45 mg/L. Experimental toxicity data for 5 pure chain length LAS were used to generate this QSAR. This model is suitable for predicting the acute toxicity of LAS to an aquatic invertebrate with chain lengths ranging from 10 to 14 carbons long. This model is also suitable for predicted the toxicity of LAS with non-integer average chain lengths (e.g. C11.75), as demonstrated experimentally within this publication.

log(EC50) = -0.353x + 4.831, where x is the chain length of the alkyl carbon backbone.

The result is a local QSAR that encompasses LAS with carbon lengths ranging from 10 to 14.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
2003-07-15 to 2003-10-17
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Justification for type of information:
Refer to the section 13 of the dataset for details on the read across justification.
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
(Analytical monitoring of the test susbtance was not performed)
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
(Study conducted at P&G by Environmental Safety Department scientists well experienced in aquatic toxicity testing, and well documented.)
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Stock solutions were prepared immediately prior to beginning (1000 mg/L in high quality water). Dosing solutions were individually prepared in ESD-Blended Water in 500 mL volumetric cylinders.
- Controls: 100% dilution water
- Evidence of undissolved material (e.g. precipitate, surface film, etc): None
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Daphnia magna
- Strain: Not available
- Source: Aquatic Research Organisms. P.O. Box 1271. One Lafayette Road, Hampton, NH 03843
- Age at study initiation: < 24 hours old
- Weight, Length at study initiation: Not available
- Method of breeding: Daphnids utilized in tests were obtained from productive females held in groups in 2 L crystallizing dishes filled with approximately 1.5- 1.75 L of dilution medium. The day prior to testing, females were removed from batch cultures to isolate released young.
- Feeding during test: No

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Cultured and tested under same conditions
- Acclimation conditions: Same as test
- Type and amount of food: An algae mixture of Ankistrodesmus falcactus, Chlamydomonas rheinhardtii, and Scendesmus quaddricauda
- Feeding frequency: Not available
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): Not available
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not applicable
Hardness:
The total hardness of the dilution water was ~180 mg/L (range of 157 - 199).
Test temperature:
The test temparature was 22.0 - 22.4 degree C throughout the test.
pH:
pH was measured at 0 and 48 hours of the test. Overall, pH ranged 7.65 - 8.60. Details on pH measurements are provided in a Table below.
Dissolved oxygen:
DO concentration was measured at 0 and 48 hours of the test. Overall, DO concentration ranged 7.7- 8.6 mg/L. Details on DO measurements are provided in a Table below.
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal test concentrations for C10 LAS were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 mg/L, based on the active ingredient in the test material.
No measurement of test concentrations.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 250 mL glass beakers containing 100 mL of test solution
- Aeration: Not available
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2
- Biomass loading rate: 100 mL of test solution/10 organisms: 10 mL per organism

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: The dilution water was "ESD Blended water," which is a mixture of well water and RO water.
- Total organic carbon: Not available
- Particulate matter: Not available
- Metals: Not available
- Pesticides: Not available
- Chlorine: Not available
- Alkalinity: 119 - 145 mg/L
- Ca/mg ratio: Not available
- Conductivity: 350 - 385 mg/L
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: DO, temperature, pH, Alkalinity, Hardness and Conductivity were measured at 0 and 48 hours of the test.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Not applicable
- Photoperiod: 16 hours light: 8 hours dark
- Light intensity: Not available

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality at 0, 24, 48 hours.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2
- Range finding study: Yes
- Test concentrations: Not available
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: yes.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
15.19 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95%CL: 13.62-16.94 mg/L
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: None
- Observations on body length and weight: No
- Other biological observations: No
- Mortality of control: 0%
- Other adverse effects control: None
- Abnormal responses: None
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: No
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Mortality results were summarized using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method, Version 1.5 to generate 48 hour LC50 statistics.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The 48 hour LC50 value of C10 LAS to Daphnia magna was 15.19 mg/L, based on nominal concentrations of active ingredient.
Executive summary:

In a 48 hour acute toxicity study, Daphnia magna were exposed to C10 LAS at nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mg a.i./L under static conditions.

The 48 hour LC50 value was 15.19 (95% CL: 13.62 - 16.94) mg a.i /L, based on nominal concentration.

This toxicity study followed method equivalent to OECD guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. acute immobilsation test), fulfilled its requirements and is classified as acceptable.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
2003-07-15 to 2003-10-17
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Justification for type of information:
Refer to the section 13 of the dataset for details on the read across justification.
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The aim of this study was to determine acute aquatic toxicity of C10 linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (C10 LAS) for Ceriodaphnia dubia. Two replicates of ten daphnids/concentration were exposed to 0 (control), 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mg/L (nominal concentrations) for 48 hours under static conditions. Mortality was the recorded at 24 and 48 hours of exposure. Temperature was recorded at the time of observation. Dissolved oxygen, pH, alkalinity, hardness and conductivity were recored at the test initiation while only dissolved oxygen and pH were recored at the conclusion of test. Based on the percent mortality, the 48 hour LC50 value was determined using Trimmed Spearman-Karber method.
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
Study conducted at P&G by Environmental Safety Department scientists well experienced in aquatic toxicity testing, and well documented.
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Stock solutions were prepared immediately prior to beginning the test (1000 mg/L in high quality water). Dosing solutions were individually prepared in East Fork Lake water in 500 mL volumetric cylinders.
- Controls: 100% dilution water
- Evidence of undissolved material (e.g. precipitate, surface film, etc): None
Test organisms (species):
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Ceriodaphnia dubia
- Strain: Not available
- Source: Aquatic Research Organisms. P.O. Box 1271. One Lafayette Road, Hampton, NH 03843
- Age at study initiation: < 24 hours old
- Weight, Length at study initiation: Not available
- Method of breeding: Daphnids utilized in tests were obtained from productive females held in groups in 1 L glass beakers filled with approximately 1 L of dilution medium. The day prior to testing, females were removed from batch cultures to isolate released young. Ceriodaphnia were cultured in filtered East Fork Lake water.
- Feeding during test: No

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Cultured and tested under same conditions
- Acclimation conditions: Same as test
- Type and amount of food: An algae mixture of Ankistrodesmus falcactus, Chlamydomonas rheinhardtii, and Scendesmus quaddricauda
- Feeding frequency: Not available
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): Not available
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not applicable
Hardness:
The total hardness of the dilution water was ~100 mg/L (range of 100 - 140).
Test temperature:
The test temparature was 23.0 - 24.8 degree C throughout the test.
pH:
pH was measured at 0 and 48 hours of the test. Overall, pH ranged 7.32 - 9.28. Details on pH measurements are provided in a Table below.
Dissolved oxygen:
DO concentration was measured at 0 and 48 hours of the test. Overall, DO concentration ranged 7.2- 8.2 mg/L. Details on DO measurements are provided in a Table below.
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal test concentrations for C10 LAS were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 mg/L, based on the active ingredient in the test material.
No measurement of test concentrations.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 50 mL glass beakers containing 25 mL of test solution
- Aeration: Not available
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2
- Biomass loading rate: 25 mL of test solution/10 organisms: 2.5 mL per organism

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: The dilution water was filtered East Fork Lake water. The water was filtered through Whatman No. 1 paper, then through 0.45 µm pore filters.
- Total organic carbon: Not available
- Particulate matter: Not available
- Metals: Not available
- Pesticides: Not available
- Chlorine: Not available
- Alkalinity: 76 - 106 mg/L
- Ca/mg ratio: Not available
- Conductivity: 220 - 245 mg/L
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: DO, temperature, pH were measured at 0 and 48 hour of the test. Alkalinity, Hardness and Conductivity were measured at time 0, but there was insufficient test medium to measure alkalinity, hardness, and conductivity at 48 hour of the test.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Not applicable
- Photoperiod: 16 hour light: 8 hour dark
- Light intensity: Not available

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality at 0, 24, 48 hours

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2
- Range finding study: Yes
- Test concentrations: Not available
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: yes.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
21.82 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95%CL: 20.0 - 23.8 mg/L
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: None
- Observations on body length and weight: No
- Other biological observations: No
- Mortality of control: 0%
- Other adverse effects control: None
- Abnormal responses: None
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: No
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Mortality results were summarized using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method, Version 1.5 to generate 48 hour LC50 statistics.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
The 48 hour LC50 value of C10 LAS to Ceriodaphnia dubia was 21.8 mg/L, based on nominal concentrations of active ingredient.
Executive summary:

In a 48 hour acute toxicity study, Ceriodaphnia dubia were exposed to C10 LAS at nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mg a.i./L under static conditions.

The 48 hour LC50 value was 21.8 (95% CL: 20.0 - 23.8) mg a.i /L, based on nominal concentration.

This toxicity study is well documented, meets general scientific principles and acceptable for assessment.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
2003-07-15 To 2003-10-17
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Justification for type of information:
Refer to the section 13 of the dataset for details on the read across justification.
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
(Analytical monitoring of the test susbtance was not performed)
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
(Study conducted at P&G by Environmental Safety Department scientists well experienced in aquatic toxicity testing, and well documented.)
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Stock solutions were prepared immediately prior to beginning (1000 mg/L in high quality water). Dosing solutions were individually prepared in ESD-Blended Water in 500 mL volumetric cylinders.
- Controls: 100% dilution water
- Evidence of undissolved material (e.g. precipitate, surface film, etc): None
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Daphnia magna
- Strain: Not available
- Source: Aquatic Research Organisms. P.O. Box 1271. One Lafayette Road, Hampton, NH 03843
- Age at study initiation: < 24 hours old
- Weight, Length at study initiation: Not available
- Method of breeding: Daphnids utilized in tests were obtained from productive females held in groups in 2 L crystallizing dishes filled with approximately 1.5 - 1.75 L of dilution medium. The day prior to testing, females were removed from batch cultures to isolate released young.
- Feeding during test: No

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Cultured and tested under same conditions
- Acclimation conditions: Same as test
- Type and amount of food: An algae mixture of Ankistrodesmus falcactus, Chlamydomonas rheinhardtii, and Scendesmus quaddricauda
- Feeding frequency: Not available
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): Not available
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not applicable
Hardness:
The total hardness of the dilution water was ~180 mg/L (range of 169 - 199).
Test temperature:
The test temparature was 22.0 - 22.4 degree C throughout the test.
pH:
pH was measured at 0 and 48 hours of the test. Overall, pH ranged 7.79 - 8.60. Details on pH measurements are provided in a Table below.
Dissolved oxygen:
DO concentration was measured at 0 and 48 hours of the test. Overall, DO concentration ranged 7.7- 8.6 mg/L. Details on DO measurements are provided in a Table below.
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal test concentrations for C11 LAS were 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mg/L, based on the active ingredient in the test material.
No measurement of test concentrations.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 250 mL glass beakers containing 100 mL of test solution
- Aeration: Not available
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2
- Biomass loading rate: 100 mL of test solution/10 organisms : 10 mL per organism

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: The dilution water was "ESD Blended water," which is a mixture of well water and RO water.
- Total organic carbon: Not available
- Particulate matter: Not available
- Metals: Not available
- Pesticides: Not available
- Chlorine: Not available
- Alkalinity: 113 - 139 mg/L
- Ca/mg ratio: Not available
- Conductivity: 350 - 375 mg/L
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: DO, temperature, pH , Alkalinity, Hardness and Conductivity were measured at 0 and 48 hour of the test.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Not applicable
- Photoperiod: 16 hour light: 8 hour dark
- Light intensity: Not available

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality at 0, 24, 48 hours

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2
- Range finding study: Yes
- Test concentrations: Not available
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: yes
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
12.21 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 10.70 - 13.93 mg/L
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: None
- Observations on body length and weight: No
- Other biological observations: No
- Mortality of control: 0%
- Other adverse effects control: None
- Abnormal responses: None
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: No
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Mortality results were summarized using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method, Version 1.5 to generate 48 hour LC50 statistics.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The 48 hour LC50 value of C11-LAS to Daphnia magna was 12.2 mg/L, based on nominal concentrations of active ingredient.
Executive summary:

In a 48 hour acute toxicity study, Daphnia magna were exposed to C11-LAS at nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mg a.i./L under static conditions.

The 48 hour LC50 value was 12.21 (95% CL: 10.70 - 13.93) mg a.i /L, based on nominal concentration.

This toxicity study followed method equivalent to OECD guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. acute immobilsation test), fulfilled its requirements and is classified as acceptable.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2003-07-15 To 2003-10-17
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Justification for type of information:
Refer to the section 13 of the dataset for details on the read across justification.
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The aim of this study was to determine acute aquatic toxicity of C11 linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (C11 LAS) for Ceriodaphnia dubia. Two replicates of ten daphnids/concentration were exposed to 0 (control), 0.25, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/L (nominal concentrations) for 48 hours under static conditions. Mortality was the recorded at 24 and 48 hours of exposure. Temperature was recorded at the time of observation. Dissolved oxygen, pH, alkalinity, hardness and conductivity were recored at the test initiation while only dissolved oxygen and pH were recored at the conclusion of test. Based on the percent mortality, the 48 hour LC50 value was determined using Trimmed Spearman-Karber method.
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
Study conducted at P&G by Environmental Safety Department scientists well experienced in aquatic toxicity testing, and well documented.
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Stock solutions were prepared immediately prior to beginning the test (1000 mg/L in high quality water). Dosing solutions were individually prepared in East Fork Lake water in 500 mL volumetric cylinders.
- Controls: 100% dilution water
- Evidence of undissolved material (e.g. precipitate, surface film, etc): None
Test organisms (species):
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Ceriodaphnia dubia
- Strain: Not available
- Source: Aquatic Research Organisms. P.O. Box 1271. One Lafayette Road, Hampton, NH 03843
- Age at study initiation: < 24 hours old
- Weight, Length at study initiation: Not available
- Method of breeding: Daphnids utilized in tests were obtained from productive females held in groups in 1 L glass beakers filled with approximately 1 L of dilution medium. The day prior to testing, females were removed from batch cultures to isolate released young. Ceriodaphnia were cultured in filtered East Fork Lake water.
- Feeding during test: No

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Cultured and tested under same conditions
- Acclimation conditions: Same as test
- Type and amount of food: An algae mixture of Ankistrodesmus falcactus, Chlamydomonas rheinhardtii, and Scendesmus quaddricauda
- Feeding frequency: Not available
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): Not available
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
Not applicable
Hardness:
The total hardness of the dilution water was ~100 mg/L (range of 102 - 140).
Test temperature:
The test temparature was 23.0 - 24.8 degree C throughout the test.
pH:
pH was measured at 0 and 48 hours of the test. Overall, pH ranged 7.32- 9.33. Details on pH measurements are provided in a Table below.
Dissolved oxygen:
DO concentration was measured at 0 and 48 hours of the test. Overall, DO concentration ranged 7.1- 8.2 mg/L. Details on DO measurements are provided in a Table below.
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal test concentrations for C11 LAS were 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mg/L, based on the active ingredient in the test material.
No measurement of test concentrations.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type: open
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 50 mL glass beakers containing 25 mL of test solution
- Aeration: Not available
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2
- Biomass loading rate: 25 mL of test solution/10 organisms : 2.5 mL per organism

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: The dilution water was filtered East Fork Lake water. The water was filtered through Whatman No. 1 paper, then through 0.45 µm pore filters.
- Total organic carbon: Not available
- Particulate matter: Not available
- Metals: Not available
- Pesticides: Not available
- Chlorine: Not available
- Alkalinity: 116 - 122 mg/L
- Ca/mg ratio: Not available
- Conductivity: 290 - 295 mg/L
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: DO, temperature, pH were measured at 0 and 48 hour of the test. Alkalinity, Hardness and Conductivity were measured at time 0, but there was insufficient test medium to measure alkalinity, hardness, and conductivity at 48 hour of the test.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: Not applicable
- Photoperiod: 16 hour light: 8 hour dark
- Light intensity: Not available

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality at 0, 24, 48 hours.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2
- Range finding study: Yes
- Test concentrations: Not available
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: yes.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
9.47 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 8.3 - 10.8 mg/L
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: None
- Observations on body length and weight: No
- Other biological observations: No
- Mortality of control: 0%
- Other adverse effects control: None
- Abnormal responses: None
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: No
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not applicable
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Mortality results were summarized using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method, Version 1.5 to generate 48 hour LC50 statistics.

Table 2: Acute Toxicity of C11LAS to Ceriodaphnia dubia (study # 65613)

Nominal Test Conc. (mg/L)

Mortality (%)

24 hour

48 hour

0

0

0

2.5

0

0

5

0

0

10

20

50

15

60

95

20

75

100

20 daphnids/test concentration (2x10 each conc.)

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
The 48 hour LC50 value of C11-LAS to Ceriodaphnia dubia was 9.47 mg/L, based on nominal concentrations of active ingredient.
Executive summary:

In a 48 hour acute toxicity study, Ceriodaphnia dubia were exposed to C11-LAS at nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mg a.i./L under static conditions.

The 48 hour LC50 value was 9.47 (95% CL: 8.3 - 10.8) mg a.i /L, based on nominal concentration.

This toxicity study is well documented, meets general scientific principles and acceptable for assessment.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
2003-10-15 to 2003-10-17
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Justification for type of information:
Refer to the section 13 of the dataset for details on the read across justification.
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
(Analytical monitoring of the test susbtance was not performed)
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
(Study conducted at P&G by Environmental Safety Department scientists well experienced in aquatic toxicity testing, and well documented.)
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Stock solutions were prepared immediately prior to beginning (1000 mg/L in high quality water). Dosing solutions were individually prepared in ESD-Blended Water in 500 mL volumetric cylinders.
- Controls: 100% dilution water
- Evidence of undissolved material: No
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Daphnia magna
- Strain: Not available
- Source: Aquatic Research Organisms. P.O. Box 1271. One Lafayette Road, Hampton, NH 03843
- Age at study initiation: < 24 hours old
- Weight, Length at study initiation: Not available
- Method of breeding: Daphnids utilized in tests were obtained from productive females held in groups in 2 L crystallizing dishes filled with approximately 1.5- 1.75 L of dilution medium. The day prior to testing, females were removed from batch cultures to isolate released young.
- Feeding during test: No

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Cultured and tested under same conditions
- Acclimation conditions: Same as test
- Type and amount of food: An algae mixture of Ankistrodesmus falcactus, Chlamydomonas rheinhardtii, and Scendesmus quaddricauda
- Feeding frequency: Not available
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): Not available
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
~180 mg/L (range of 161 - 202).
Test temperature:
22.0 - 22.4 degree C throughout the test.
pH:
Overall, pH ranged 7.61 - 8.53. Details on pH measurements are provided in a Table below.
Dissolved oxygen:
Overall, DO concentration ranged 7.5- 8.5 mg/L. Details on DO measurements are provided in a Table below.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal test concentrations of C12 LAS based on 95.5% active were 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 mg/L. No measurements of test concentrations.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 250 mL glass beakers containing 100 mL of test solution
- Type: open
- Aeration: No
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2
- Biomass loading rate: 100 mL of test solution/10 organisms : 10 mL per organism

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: The dilution water was "ESD Blended water," which is a mixture of well water and RO water.
- Total organic carbon: Not available
- Particulate matter: Not available
- Metals: Not available
- Pesticides: Not available
- Chlorine: Not available
- Alkalinity: 117 - 147 mg/L
- Ca/mg ratio: Not available
- Conductivity: 345 - 370 mg/L
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: DO, temperature, pH , Alkalinity, Hardness and Conductivity were measured at 0 and 48hr of the test.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: No
- Photoperiod: 16 hour light: 8 hour dark
- Light intensity: Not available

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality at 0, 24, 48 hours

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2
- Range finding study: Yes
- Test concentrations: Not available
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: yes.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
6.06 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 4.94 - 7.44 mg/L
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: None
- Observations on body length and weight: No
- Other biological observations: No
- Mortality of control: 0%
- Other adverse effects control: None
- Abnormal responses: None
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Mortality results were summarized using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method, Version 1.5 to generate 48 hour LC50 statistics.

Table 2: Acute toxicity of C12 LAS to Daphnia magna (study # 65613)

Test Material

Concentration
(mg/L)

24 hour

48 hour

C12 LAS

0

0

0

1

0

0

2

0

5

4

0

20

8

10

65

16

100

100

LAS: linear alkylbenzene sulfonate.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The 48 hour LC50 value of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (C12 LAS) to Daphnia magna was 6.06 mg/L, based on nominal concentrations of active ingredient.
Executive summary:

In a 48 hour acute toxicity study, Daphnia magna were exposed to linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (C12 LAS) at nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 2, 4, 8 and 18 mg a.i./L under static conditions.

The 48 hour LC50 value was 6.06 (95% CL: 4.94 - 7.44) mg a.i /L, based on nominal test concentrations.

This toxicity study followed method equivalent to OECD guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. acute immobilsation test), fulfilled its requirements and is classified as acceptable.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
2003-10-15 to 2003-10-17
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Justification for type of information:
Refer to the section 13 of the dataset for details on the read across justification.
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The aim of this study was to determine acute aquatic toxicity of C12 linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (C12 LAS) for Ceriodaphnia dubia. Two replicates of ten daphnids/concentration were exposed to 0 (control), 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 mg/L (nominal concentrations) for 48 hours under static conditions. Mortality was the recorded at 24 and 48 hours of exposure. Temperature was recorded at the time of observation. Dissolved oxygen, pH, alkalinity, hardness and conductivity were recored at the test initiation while only dissolved oxygen and pH were recored at the conclusion of test. Based on the percent mortality, the 48 hour LC50 value was determined using Trimmed Spearman-Karber method.
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
(Study conducted at P&G by Environmental Safety Department scientists well experienced in aquatic toxicity testing, and well documented.)
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: Stock solutions were prepared immediately prior to beginning the test (1000 mg/L in high quality water). Dosing solutions were individually prepared in East Fork Lake water in 500 mL volumetric cylinders.
- Controls: 100% dilution water
- Evidence of undissolved material: No
Test organisms (species):
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Ceriodaphnia dubia
- Strain: Not available
- Source: Aquatic Research Organisms. P.O. Box 1271. One Lafayette Road, Hampton, NH 03843
- Age at study initiation: < 24 hour old
- Weight, Length at study initiation: Not available
- Method of breeding: Daphnids utilized in tests were obtained from productive females held in groups in 1 L glass beakers filled with approximately 1 L of dilution medium. The day prior to testing, females were removed from batch cultures to isolate released young. Ceriodaphnia were cultured in filtered East Fork Lake water.
- Feeding during test: No

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Cultured and tested under same conditions
- Acclimation conditions: Same as test
- Type and amount of food: An algae mixture of Ankistrodesmus falcactus, Chlamydomonas rheinhardtii, and Scendesmus quaddricauda
- Feeding frequency: Not available
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): Not available
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
~150 mg/L (range of 146 - 160).
Test temperature:
23.0 - 24.9 degree C throughout the test.
pH:
Overall, pH ranged 8.23 - 8.86. Details on pH measurements are provided in a Table below.
Dissolved oxygen:
Overall, DO concentration ranged 7.0 - 8.2 mg/L. Details on DO measurements are provided in a Table below.
Salinity:
Not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal test concentrations of C12 LAS based on 95.5% active were 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 mg/L. No measurements of test concentrations.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 50 mL glass beakers containing 25 mL of test solution
- Type: open
- Aeration: No
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2
- Biomass loading rate: 25 mL of test solution/10 organisms: 2.5 mL per organism

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: The dilution water was filtered East Fork Lake water. The water was filtered through Whatman No. 1 paper, then through 0.45 µm pore filters.
- Total organic carbon: Not available
- Particulate matter: Not available
- Metals: Not available
- Pesticides: Not available
- Chlorine: Not available
- Alkalinity: 116 - 122 mg/L
- Ca/mg ratio: Not available
- Conductivity: 290 - 295 mg/L
- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: DO, temperature, pH were measured at 0 and 48 hour of the test. Alkalinity, Hardness and Conductivity were measured at time 0, but there was insufficient test medium to measure alkalinity, hardness, and conductivity at 48 hour of the test.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: No
- Photoperiod: 16 hour light: 8 hour dark
- Light intensity: Not available

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality at 0, 24, 48 hours.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 2
- Range finding study: Yes
- Test concentrations: Not available
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: yes.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
3 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL: 2.3 - 3.9 mg/L.
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: None
- Observations on body length and weight: No
- Other biological observations: No
- Mortality of control: 0%
- Other adverse effects control: None
- Abnormal responses: None
- Effect concentrations exceeding solubility of substance in test medium: No
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Mortality results were summarized using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method, Version 1.5 to generate 48 hour LC50 statistics.

Table 2: Acute toxicity of C12 LAS to Ceriodaphnia dubia (study # 65613)

Test Material

Concentration
(mg/L)

24 hour

48 hour

C12 LAS

0

5

5

1

35

35

2

20

30

4

40

65

8

100

100

16

100

100

LAS: linear alkylbenzene sulfonate.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
The 48 hour LC50 value of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (C12 LAS) to Ceriodaphnia dubia was 3.0 mg/L, based on nominal concentrations of active ingredient.
Executive summary:

In a 48 hour acute toxicity study, Ceriodaphnia dubia were exposed to linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (C12 LAS) at nominal concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 2, 4, 8 and 18 mg a.i./L under static conditions.

The 48 hour LC50 value was 3.0 (95% CL: 2.3 - 3.9) mg a.i /L, based on nominal test concentrations.

This toxicity study is well documented, meets general scientific principles and acceptable for assessment.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Justification for type of information:
Refer to the section 13 of the dataset for details on the read across justification.
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: EPA-660/3-75-009. Method for acute toxicity tests with fish, macroinvertebrates and amphibians with fish, macroinvertebrates and amphibians (1975).
Deviations:
not specified
Remarks:
(Details on study methodology are not available to conclude deviations from guideline)
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
(Predates GLP)
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on test solutions:
No details on test solution were provided in the source.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Daphnia magna
- Age at study initiation: less than 18 hours old
- Feeding during test: No
No further details on test organisms were provided in the source.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
other: Well water
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
250 mg/L
Test temperature:
Not reported
pH:
Not reported
Dissolved oxygen:
Not reported
Salinity:
Not reported
Conductivity:
Not reported
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Five concentrations were tested in the study.
No further details were provided in the source.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 250 mL beaker with 200 mL well water
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration: 3 replicates
No other details on test conditions were provided in the source.
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
3.5 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 48 hours LC 50 value: 3.5 ± 1.0 mg/L
Details on results:
The 24 hours LC50 value of 10.7 ± 1.6 mg/L was also provided in the source.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 values and 95% confidence limits were calculated using a logit transformation computer program following the method of Litchfield & Wilcoxon.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
The 48 hours LC50 value of C12 linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) for Daphnia magna was 3.5 ±1.0 mg/L, based on the nominal concentration.
Executive summary:

A 48 hour acute aquatic invertebrate toxicity study following U.S. EPA-660/3-75-009 (Methods for acute toxicity tests with fish, macroinvertebrates, and amphibians) was performed to assess the effects of C12 linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on mortality of Daphnia magna under static conditions.

Test substance was exposed to Daphnia magna (n=30; divided in three replicates) at five test concentrations for a period of 48 hours. No details regarding analytical verification of test substance and mortality at different test concentrations were provided.

The 48 hour LC50 value of C12 linear alkylbenzene sulfonate for Daphnia magna was 3.5 ± 1.0 mg/L, based on the nominal concentration.

This toxicity study is classified as acceptable, meets general scientific principles and acceptable for assessment.

Description of key information

MEA-LAS dissociates into MEA and LAS in water and the acute toxicity to aquatic invertebrates of both compounds has been studied.

Study 1 (C10-13 LAS):

In a 48 h acute toxicity study, Daphnia magna were exposed to C10-13 LAS, sodium salt (as ‘LAS-Veneco’ and ‘LAS-Pantera’) at nominal concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mg a.i./L under static conditions according to US EPA Method EPA/6000-4-85-013. Daphnids were reared in ESD blended water (mix of well and RO water), with continuous batch cultures, and kept in a static system. Water quality parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, hardness and conductivity) were determined at test start and end. Mortality results were analysed using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method, version 1.5. The 48 h LC50 was 7.01 (95% CL: 6.28 - 7.82) mg/L for LAS-Veneco and 9.15 (95% CL: 7.9 - 10.5) mg/L for LAS-Pantera, based on nominal concentrations (Brill, 2008).

Study 2 (MEA-LAS, (Q)SAR):

The 48 h EC50 to Daphnia magna was predicted to be 6.62 mg/L for MEA-LAS with an average chain length of C11.6. Experimental toxicity data for 5 pure chain length LAS were used to generate this (Q)SAR. This model is suitable for predicting the acute toxicity of LAS to an aquatic invertebrate with chain lengths ranging from 10 to 14 carbons. This model is also suitable for predicting the toxicity of LAS with non-integer average chain lengths (e.g. C11.75), as demonstrated experimentally within this publication.

log(EC50) = -0.295x + 4.243, where x is the chain length of the alkyl carbon backbone (Belanger, 2016).

Study 3 (MEA-LAS, (Q)SAR):

The predicted 48 h EC50 of MEA-LAS with a chain length of C11.6 to Ceriodaphnia dubia is 5.45 mg/L. Experimental toxicity data for 5 pure chain length LAS were used to generate this (Q)SAR. This model is suitable for predicting the acute toxicity of LAS to an aquatic invertebrate with chain lengths ranging from 10 to 14 carbons. This model is also suitable for predicting the toxicity of LAS with non-integer average chain lengths (e.g. C11.75), as demonstrated experimentally within this publication.

log(EC50) = -0.353x + 4.831, where x is the chain length of the alkyl carbon backbone (Belanger, 2016).

Study 4 (C10 LAS): 

In a 48 h acute toxicity study, Daphnia magna were exposed to C10 LAS, sodium salt at nominal concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mg a.i./L under static conditions according to a method equivalent to OECD Guideline 202. The 48 h LC50 was 15.19 mg a.i./L (95% CL: 13.62 - 16.94 mg/L) based on nominal concentrations (Brill, 2008). 

Study 5 (C10 LAS):

In a 48 h acute toxicity study, Ceriodaphnia dubia were exposed to C10 LAS, sodium salt at nominal concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mg a.i./L under static conditions. The 48 h LC50 was 21.8 mg a.i/L (95% CL: 20.0 - 23.8 mg/L) based on nominal concentrations (Brill, 2008). 

Study 6 (C11 LAS): 

In a 48 h acute toxicity study, Daphnia magna were exposed to C11 LAS, sodium salt at nominal concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mg a.i./L under static conditions according to a method equivalent to OECD Guideline 202. The 48 h LC50 was 12.21 mg a.i /L (95% CL: 10.70 - 13.93 mg/L), based on nominal concentrations (Brill, 2008). 

Study 7 (C11 LAS):

In a 48 h acute toxicity study, Ceriodaphnia dubia were exposed to C11 LAS, sodium salt at nominal concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg a.i./L under static conditions. The 48 h LC50 was 9.47 mg a.i /L (95% CL: 8.3 - 10.8 mg/L) based on nominal concentrations (Brill, 2008). 

Study 8 (C12 LAS):

In a 48 h acute toxicity study, Daphnia magna were exposed to C12 LAS, sodium salt at nominal concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 18 mg a.i./L under static conditions according to a method equivalent to OECD Guideline 202. The 48 h LC50 was 6.06 mg a.i./L (95% CL: 4.94 - 7.44 mg/L) based on nominal concentrations (Brill, 2008). 

Study 9 (C12 LAS):

In a 48 h acute toxicity study, Ceriodaphnia dubia were exposed to C12 LAS, sodium salt at nominal concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 18 mg a.i./L under static conditions. The 48 h LC50 was 3.0 mg a.i /L (95% CL: 2.3 - 3.9 mg/L) based on nominal concentrations (Brill, 2008). 

Study 10 (C12 LAS):

A 48 h acute aquatic invertebrate toxicity study following U.S. EPA-660/3-75-009 (Methods for acute toxicity tests with fish, macroinvertebrates, and amphibians) was performed to assess the effects of C12 LAS on mortality of Daphnia magna under static conditions. Test substance was exposed to Daphnia magna (n=30; divided in three replicates) at five test concentrations for a period of 48 h. No details regarding analytical verification of test substance and mortality at different test concentrations were provided. The 48 h LC50 was 3.5 ± 1.0 mg/L, based on the nominal concentrations (Kimerle, 1977).

Study 11 (C13 LAS):

In a 48 h acute toxicity study, Daphnia magna were exposed to C13 LAS, sodium salt at nominal concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg a.i./L under static conditions according to a method equivalent to OECD Guideline 202. The 48 h LC50 was 2.55 mg a.i /L (95% CL: 2.12 - 3.07 mg/L) based on nominal concentrations (Brill, 2008). 

Study 12 (C13 LAS):

In a 48 h acute toxicity study, Ceriodaphnia dubia were exposed to C13 LAS, sodium salt at nominal concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg a.i./L under static conditions. The 48 h LC50 was 1.85 mg a.i/L (95% CL: 1.6 - 2.2 mg/L) based on nominal concentrations (Brill, 2008).

Study 13 (C14 LAS):

In a 48 h acute toxicity study, Daphnia magna were exposed to C14 LAS, sodium salt at nominal concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg a.i./L under static conditions according to a method equivalent to OECD Guideline 202. The 48 h LC50 was 1.11 mg a.i /L (95% CL: 0.96 - 1.3 mg/L) based on nominal concentrations (Brill, 2008). 

Study 14 (C14 LAS):

In a 48 h acute toxicity study, Ceriodaphnia dubia were exposed to C14 LAS, sodium salt at nominal concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg a.i./L under static conditions. The 48 h LC50 was 0.85 mg a.i./L (95% CL: 0.72 - 1.0 mg/L) based on nominal concentrations (Brill, 2008). 

Study 15 (C10-13 LAS):

In a 48 h acute toxicity study, Daphnia magna were exposed to C10-13 LAS, sodium salt (‘LAS ex Petresa’) at nominal concentrations of 0, 0.39, 0.68, 1.21, 2.18, 3.87, 6.77 and 12.1 mg a.i./L under static conditions according to OECD Guideline 202. The 48 h EC50 based on mobility was 2.9 mg a.i./L (95% CL: 2.5 - 3.5 mg/L) (Hooftman, 1990). 

Study 16 (C10-14 LAS):

The 96 h LC50 of C10-14 LAS, sodium salt (average chain length C12.3) for the amphipod Hyalella azteca was determined under static conditions. The nominal test concentrations were 0, 0.63, 1.3, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 mg a.i./L. The mortality of amphipods was determined at 48, 96, 144 and 192 h. The 96 h LC50 was 3.5 mg/L (95% CL: 2.4 - 5.3 mg/L). LC50 values estimated for 48, 144 and 192 h were 7.6 (95% CL: 4.9 - 21.0), 1.1 (95% CL: 0.23 - 1.9) and 0.96 (95% CL: 0.29 - 1.6) mg a.i./L, respectively (McNamara, 1990).

Study 17 (C10-14 LAS):

The 96 h LC50 of C10-14 LAS, sodium salt (average chain length C12.3) in the midge Chironomus riparius was determined under static conditions. The nominal test concentrations were 0, 1.3, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg a.i./L. The mortality of midge was determined at 48 and 96 h. Mortality of ≤ 5% was observed at the three lowest concentrations (1.3, 2.5, 5.0 mg/L). Mortality of 95-100% was observed at the two highest exposure levels (10, 20 mg/L) after 96 h. Control mortality was 10%. The 48 and 96 h LC50 were 8.6 (95% CL: 5.0 - 20.0) and 6.5 (95% CL: 5.3 - 8.2) mg a.i./L, respectively (McNamara, 1990). 

Study 18 (C10-14 LAS):

The 96 h LC50 of C10-14 LAS, sodium salt (average chain length C12.3) for the oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri was determined under static conditions. The nominal test concentrations were 0, 0.31, 0.63, 1.3, 2.5 and 5.0 mg a.i./L. The mortality of oligochaetes was determined at 48 and 96 h. The 48 and 96 h LC50 values were 2.4 (95% CL: 1.9 - 3.1) and 1.8 (95% CL: 1.4 - 2.2) mg a.i./L, respectively (McNamara, 1990).

Study 19 (MEA):

The 48 h acute toxicity of MEA to Daphnia magna was determined under static conditions according to EU Method C.2 at nominal concentrations of 0, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300 and 1000 mg/L. The corresponding analytic concentrations measured at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h were 2.7-4.6, 9.6-10.8, 26.9-28.0, 101-109, 306-322 and 956-1118 mg/L, respectively. The 48 h EC50, based on nominal concentrations, was equivalent to 65 mg/L (Scholz, 1997).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
7.01 mg/L

Additional information

The point of departure for aquatic PNEC derivation is the 56 d NOEC of 0.268 mg/L from a mesocosm model ecosystem (Belanger, 1997, 2002 and 2004; Lowe, 1996).