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EC number: 283-294-5
CAS number: 84604-16-0
Extractives and their physically modified derivatives such as tinctures, concretes, absolutes, essential oils, oleoresins, terpenes, terpene-free fractions, distillates, residues, etc., obtained from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomycelaceae.
All livestock animal species harbour complex microbial communities
throughout their digestive tract that support vital biochemical
processes, thus sustaining health and productivity. In part as a
consequence of the strong and ancient alliance between the host and its
associated microbes, the gut microbiota is also closely related to
productivity traits such as feed efficiency. This phenomenon can help
researchers and producers develop new and more effective
microbiome-based interventions using probiotics, also known as
direct-fed microbials (DFMs), in Animal Science. Here, we focus on one
type of such beneficial microorganisms, the yeast Saccharomyces.
Saccharomyces is one of the most widely used microorganisms as a DFM in
livestock operations. Numerous studies have investigated the effects of
dietary supplementation with different species, strains and doses of
Saccharomyces (mostly Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on gut microbial
ecology, health, nutrition and productivity traits of several livestock
species. However, the possible existence of Saccharomyces which are
indigenous to the animals’ digestive tract has received little attention
and has never been the subject of a review. We for the first time
provide a comprehensive review, with the objective of shedding light
into the possible existence of indigenous Saccharomyces of the digestive
tract of livestock. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a nomadic yeast able to
survive in a broad range of environments including soil, grass and
silages. Therefore, it is very likely that cattle and other animals have
been in direct contact with this and other types of Saccharomyces
throughout their entire existence. However, to date, the majority of
animal scientists seem to agree that the presence of Saccharomyces in
any section of the gut only reflects dietary contamination; in other
words, these are foreign organisms that are only transiently present in
the gut. Importantly, this belief (i.e. that Saccharomyces come solely
from the diet) is often not well grounded and does not necessarily hold
for all the many other groups of microbes in the gut. In addition to
summarizing the current body of literature involving Saccharomyces in
the digestive tract, we discuss whether the beneficial effects
associated with the consumption of Saccharomyces may be related to its
foreign origin, though this concept may not necessarily satisfy the
theories that have been proposed to explain probiotic efficacy in vivo.
This novel review may prove useful for biomedical scientists and others
wishing to improve health and productivity using Saccharomyces and other
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