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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to terrestrial arthropods

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
toxicity to bees: chronic oral
Type of information:
other: review
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
data from handbook or collection of data

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
review article or handbook
Title:
Review: Are there indigenous Saccharomyces in the digestive tract of livestock animal species? Implications for health, nutrition and productivity traits
Author:
J. F. Garcia-Mazcorro, S. L. Ishaq, M. V. Rodriguez-Herrera, C. A. Garcia-Hernandez,
J. R. Kawas and T. G. Nagaraja
Year:
2020
Bibliographic source:
doi:10.1017/S1751731119001599

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline required
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Not applicable
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Cas Number:
68876-77-7
IUPAC Name:
Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Results and discussion

Effect concentrations
Key result
Dose descriptor:
other: not applicable
Effect conc.:
0 other: not applicable
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
other: Not applciable
Basis for effect:
other: Not applicable
Remarks on result:
other: Review. Quantitative result was not determined.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most widely used microorganisms as a DFM (Direct-Fed Microbials) in livestock operations.
Executive summary:

All livestock animal species harbour complex microbial communities throughout their digestive tract that support vital biochemical processes, thus sustaining health and productivity. In part as a consequence of the strong and ancient alliance between the host and its associated microbes, the gut microbiota is also closely related to productivity traits such as feed efficiency. This phenomenon can help researchers and producers develop new and more effective microbiome-based interventions using probiotics, also known as direct-fed microbials (DFMs), in Animal Science. Here, we focus on one type of such beneficial microorganisms, the yeast Saccharomyces. Saccharomyces is one of the most widely used microorganisms as a DFM in livestock operations. Numerous studies have investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with different species, strains and doses of Saccharomyces (mostly Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on gut microbial ecology, health, nutrition and productivity traits of several livestock species. However, the possible existence of Saccharomyces which are indigenous to the animals’ digestive tract has received little attention and has never been the subject of a review. We for the first time provide a comprehensive review, with the objective of shedding light into the possible existence of indigenous Saccharomyces of the digestive tract of livestock. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a nomadic yeast able to survive in a broad range of environments including soil, grass and silages. Therefore, it is very likely that cattle and other animals have been in direct contact with this and other types of Saccharomyces throughout their entire existence. However, to date, the majority of animal scientists seem to agree that the presence of Saccharomyces in any section of the gut only reflects dietary contamination; in other words, these are foreign organisms that are only transiently present in the gut. Importantly, this belief (i.e. that Saccharomyces come solely from the diet) is often not well grounded and does not necessarily hold for all the many other groups of microbes in the gut. In addition to summarizing the current body of literature involving Saccharomyces in the digestive tract, we discuss whether the beneficial effects associated with the consumption of Saccharomyces may be related to its foreign origin, though this concept may not necessarily satisfy the theories that have been proposed to explain probiotic efficacy in vivo. This novel review may prove useful for biomedical scientists and others wishing to improve health and productivity using Saccharomyces and other beneficial microorganisms.