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EC number: 239-290-0
CAS number: 15245-44-0
Table 1: Effect of injury to the skin on absorption of lead compounds,
as measured by lead concentration in kidney (ug lead per gram wet
Table 2: Comparison of the cutaneous penetration of lead from three
different compounds, as measured by lead concentration in kidney (ug
lead per gram wet kidney).
Rats were lightly anesthetized and preparations of lead acetate (77 mg
Pb/rat), lead ortho arsenate (102 mg Pb/rat) or lead oleate (148 mg
Pb/rat) were applied to an area of 29 square centimeters of clipped
dorsal skin. In some experiments, mechanical injury to the skin was
induced prior to application. The substances were rubbed in for two
minutes with a glass rod, then, without removal of excess, the animals
were wrapped in a cylindrical celluloid shield cemented to the body at
the shoulders and hips, which prevented bending of the body and oral
contact with the shield. After 24 or 48 hours, animals were sacrificed
and various organs were removed for measurement of lead. An equal number
of control animals were analyzed with each exposure. In the experiments
with lead oleate in petrolatum vehicle, the concentration of lead in
kidney and in skin from the leg was higher in treated animals compared
to controls. The lead concentration was not higher in liver, muscle,
lung, brain, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, or thigh bone. Absorption
of lead acetate and lead oleate, as measured in the kidney, was higher
when applied to skin that underwent mechanical injury. A comparison of
the absorption of lead in the kidney from lead oleate, lead acetate, and
lead arsenate indicated that absorption of lead arsenate was similar to
control values. The absorption of lead acetate appeared to be higher
than that of lead oleate, but the difference was not statistically
significant. Absorption of lead from these three lead compounds was also
compared to that of lead tetraethyl. Measurements of lead in kidneys
were 10- to 20-fold higher with lead tetraethyl than with the three
nonvolatile lead compounds. The authors concluded that: (1) cutaneous
absorption of lead oleate, lead acetate, and lead arsenate, as measured
by the storage of lead in the kidneys, is extremely small; (2)
mechanical injury to the skin increases the penetration of lead; and (3)
the absorption of lead tetraethyl is much higher, with concentrations of
lead in the kidneys being 10- to 20-fold higher than the three
nonvolatile lead compounds.
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