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EC number: 239-290-0
CAS number: 15245-44-0
Because of the availability of multiple toxicity data for various
species and processes, the statistical extrapolation method is used to
evaluate the toxicity data, calculating the HC5-50 of the best-fitting
curve. The generic HC5-50 in the total risk approach, is 86 mg Pb/kg dw.
This HC5 -50 is based on 60 NOEC and EC10 values covering 12 different
plant species, 4 invertebrate species and 5 microbial functional
processes. The NOEC and EC10 values of the 3 groups (higher plants,
invertebrates and microbial processes) overlap in the frequency
distribution, suggesting that the sensitivity range of these organisms
Accounting for differences in Pb toxicity between spiked soils and field
contaminated soils, using a leaching/ageing factor of 4.2, results in an
aged HC5 -50 of 294 mg Pb/kg dw.
Concluding, the data provide sufficient diversity of species and soil
types, contains several unbounded data of Pb suggesting little toxicity
within the relevant toxicity range and field data were unable to
demonstrate toxicity at concentrations below the HC5-50. We note that
the European terrestrial risk assessments of metals have used an
Assessment Factor (AF) 1-2 to convert the HC5-50 into a PNEC. In the Zn
RAR, an AF=2 was used because of a restricted number of invertebrate
species. The Ni risk assessment has used AF=2, mainly because of lack of
field data. The Cd risk assessment has used AF=1-2, the motivation being
the consistency with the Zn risk assessment. The Cu risk assessment used
AF=1, the motivation being the data richness and the extensive field
validation. In balance, we note that data richness is sufficiently large
(soil/species) but that the field data of Pb are limited: there are only
2 studies and no studies providing a LOEC. Therefore we propose an AF=2
to derive the PNEC soil from the HC5-50. The HC5-50 is obtained using
the statistical extrapolation technique as suggested in the EU workshop
on statistical extrapolation (17-18 January, 2001) resulting in a PNEC
soil of (HC5 -50/2 or = 294 mg/kg /2)147 mg Pb/kg dw. This
value was obtained following the total risk approach accounting for
differences in Pb toxicity between spiked soils and field contaminated
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