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EC number: 222-720-6
CAS number: 3586-55-8
Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC)
Mean DOC (mg/L) [a] [b]
Mean DOC SodiumBenzoate [c]
Mean % DegradationTest Material [c]
% DegradationToxicity Control
% DegradationAbiotic Control
[a] mean DOC values of at least triplicate measurements per sample
[b] Corrected for inoculum controls (except for abiotic control)
[c] Mean of duplicate flasks
-- = no data obtained due to a technical defect
n.a. = Not analyzed
Percentage Biodegradation Values [a]
(Based on mean DOC values of at least
triplicate measurements per sample)
Mean % Degradation
Sodium Benzoate [b]
Test Material [b]
[a] Corrected for inoculum controls (except for abiotic control)
[b] Mean of duplicate flasks
the test flasks containing the test item MERGAL V615 and activated
sludge (inoculum), the mean concentration of DOC (dissolved organic
carbon) decreased from 15.4 mg/L (Day 0) to –0.1 mg/L (corrected for the
inoculum control) at Day 5 (see Table 5 below). The
process of biodegradation was completely finished within this short
period of 5 days
A GLP-compliant study was conducted to
determine the ready biodegradability of ‘MERGAL V615’ according toOECD
Guideline 301A and EU Commission Directive 92/69 EEC C.4-A. Activated
sewage sludge micro-organisms were exposed to approximately 40 mg test
material/L with culture medium in sealed culture vessels in the dark at
21° to 23 °C for 15 days. Initial pH was 7.4.
In the test flasks containing the test
item MERGAL V615 and activated sludge (inoculum) the mean concentration
of DOC (dissolved organic carbon) decreased from 15.4 mg/L at Day 0 to
–0.1 mg/L (corrected for the inoculum control) at Day 5. The process of
biodegradation was completely finished within this short period of 5
The pass level for ready
biodegradability, i.e. biodegradation of at least 70% removal of DOC in
a 10-day window within the 28-day period of the test, was achieved. The
10-day window started at approximately Day 1. After 5 days, the DOC
decrease already reached a plateau and amounted to 100%.
In the abiotic control which contained
the test item and poisoned medium, the DOC concentrations varied from
16.6 to 17.5 mg/L over the exposure period of 15 days and were not
significantly different from the initial DOC concentration of 17.2 mg/L
measured at Day 0. Thus, no significant abiotic elimination occurred
under the conditions of the test.
Furthermore, the observed 100% DOC
removal within 5 days for MERGAL V615 is consistent with the ready
biodegradability of formaldehyde at concentrations below the toxicity
threshold. Also, the IUCLID data set for ethylene glycol cites a large
number of studies that demonstrate ready biodegradability. These data
confirm that the products of ‘MERGAL V615’ hydrolysis are readily
The biodegradability of the test substance
was investigated in a study on ready biodegradability according to OECD
Guideline 301D (Closed-Bottle-Test). Degradation was found to be 72% and
71% at test substance concentrations of 7.05 and 4.38 mg/L,
respectively. After 14 days the oxygen uptake was 66 and 60% of the
theoretical value. All validity criteria were met within the study.
Therefore, EGForm can be classified as readily biodegradable, fulfilling
the 10-days window criterion.
In a second test according to OECD Guideline
301A (DOC Die-Away Test) degradation was complete after 5 days.
Data on formaldehyde
Ready and inherent biodegradability
The biodegradability of formaldehyde
was investigated in 2 tests on ready biodegradability according to the
OECD guidelines 301 C and D (cf. Doc III A22.214.171.124.1/01 and Doc III
A126.96.36.199.1/02). In the MITI-I-Test (OECD 301 C) degradation after 14
days was found to be 91% of BOD/ThOD and 97% of TOC. Although the test
substance concentration indicates that toxic effects can not be excluded
(c.f. Doc II A188.8.131.52, Doc III A184.108.40.206), the degradation was nearly
complete. In a Closed-Bottle-Test (OECD 301 D), the substance degraded
to 90% of ThOD after 28 days. No data are reported referring to the
14-days window criteria. Due to the results of two tests according to
OECD 301 C and D formaldehyde is expected to be readily biodegradable.
This is in agreement with the OECD evaluation (OECD 2002).
Mechanism of biodegradation
The mechanism of formaldehyde
degradation by Pseudomonas putida is initiated by a dismutation
reaction, yielding formic acid and methanol as products. Degradation of
the products began after exhaustion of formaldehyde in the medium.
Biological sewage treatment - Summary
and Conclusion (Doc III A220.127.116.11)
The removal of formaldehyde in
biological sewage treatment plants was studied in a lab-scale activated
sludge unit (cf. Doc III A18.104.22.168.1). The test is comparable to OECD 303
A (Confirmatory Test). During the operation period of 160 days the
influent concentrations were increased stepwise from 26 to 3168 mg/L.
Removal of formaldehyde was calculated based on substance-specific and
COD measurements. During the operation period, formaldehyde
concentrations increased slightly when the influent concentrations were
increased. Based on substance-specific measurements, high removal
efficiencies of around 99.5% were maintained at all influent
concentrations. However, ca. 18% of influent COD was present in
effluent. The relative high COD content in the effluent can be explained
by disproportionation of formaldehyde to methanol and formic acid. It
was shown in previous experiments that degradation of methanol and
formic acid began after exhaustion of formaldehyde in the medium. In the
unit, ammonium was removed around 99.9%, indicating that there was no
inhibition of nitrification. The hydraulic retention time (2.4 days) in
the test unit is above the value (6 hours) proposed by the OECD
guideline 303 A. Therefore, the resulting removal rate is assumed to
probably overestimate removal in biological treatment plants.
The anaerobic degradation of
formaldehyde was studied in a non-guideline batch test (cf. Doc III
A22.214.171.124.2). Sludge from the anoxic chamber of the full-scale wastewater
treatment plant of a resin-producing factory was used as inoculum. An
initial formaldehyde concentration of 1360 mg/L was applied. The
formaldehyde concentration decreased rapidly in the test medium, after 4
days the test substance was completely biodegraded. Simultaneously to
formaldehyde removal, methanol and formic acid were formed as
intermediate products. Degradation of both metabolites began after the
exhaustion of formaldehyde in the medium.
In conclusion, in the wwtp simulation
tests formaldehyde was removed to 99.5% under aerobic conditions. The
test on anaerobic degradation reveals that formaldehyde is rapidly
removed in anaerobic digester sludge.
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