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EC number: 205-597-3
CAS number: 143-28-2
Short term toxicity
There are no reliable measured short-term toxicity test results
available for freshwater fish, invertebrates or algae. QSARs have been
used to predict short-term toxicity to fish, invertebrates and algae.
Read-across data from studies with structurally similar substances
have also been considered.
The relevant short-term values are:
Fish: A reliable 96 h LC50 value of >100 mg/L has been
calculated for the effects of the test substance towards Oncorhynchus
mykiss. Therefore the test substance has been predicted to be
non-toxic at the limit of solubility, so the LC50 is >0.042
A 96h LC50 value of >1000 mg/L has been read-across from a
supporting substance C16-18 and C18 Unsaturated (CAS 68002-94-8). The
study is reliability 4 since only a summary report was available for
review. However it does support the view that the (z)-octadec-9-enol
is non-toxic at the LoS.
Invertebrates: (Z)-octadec-9-enol has been predicted to be non-toxic
at the limit of solubility, so the EL50 is >0.042 mg/L.
This is the only value available for this endpoint and therefore has
been selected as key.
A reliable 48 h EC50 value of 70 mg/L has been determined
for the effects of Alcohols, C14-18 and C16-18-unsaturated (CAS
68002-94-8) on mobility of the freshwater invertebrate Daphnia magna.
The study supports the view that the substance is non-toxic at the LoS.
Algae: (Z)-octadec-9-enol has been estimated, by expert judgement
based on read-across from other taxonomic groups and the alcohols
Category, to be non-toxic at the limit of solubility to the algal
taxonomic group. Therefore the EC50 value is >0.042 mg/L.
Long term toxicity
Fish: (Z)-octadec-9-enol has been determined by expert judgement to be
non-toxic at the limit of solubility.
Invertebrates: (Z)-octadec-9-enol has been determined by expert
judgement to be non-toxic at the limit of solubility.
A 21-d EC10 value of 0.012 mg/l (reproduction of Daphnia
magna) has been read across from pentadecan-1-ol (CAS 629-76-5,
C15). This study has been read across for the purpose of setting
indicative aquatic PNECs for use in assessing risk to the sediment and
terrestrial compartments using the equilibrium partitioning method,
because no aquatic toxicity is expected at chain lengths >C15.
Toxicity to Micro-organisms
In waste-water treatment plant micro-organisms, (z)-octadec-9-enol
does not cause inhibition at the limit of water solubility. In view of
the ready biodegradability, further information is not required in
REACH. A data waiver is in place for the activated sludge respiration
inhibition as the substance is readily biodegradable and the applied
test concentrations are in the range that can be expected in the
influent to a sewage treatment plant. Existing data is, however,
available, for the species Pseudomonas putida. A 30 minute EC10
of >10000 mg/L was determined.
Discussion of trends in the Category of C6-24 linear and
essentially-linear aliphatic alcohols:
Many short-term aquatic toxicity tests have been carried out on this
family of long chain aliphatic (LCAAs), addressing toxicity to
organisms from three trophic levels; fish, invertebrates and algae.
For studies in which the test substance had a single carbon chain
length, a key study has been identified for each taxonomic level.
Where there were two or more reliable studies of the same quality but
on different species within the same taxonomic group, the lower
toxicity value (highest level of toxicity) was chosen. For studies in
which the test substance was a multi-constituent LCAAs (commercial
products) and where there was more than one type of the substance a
key study was identified for each type.
The results of short-term tests performed on single carbon chain
length LCAAs are generally reported in terms of the nominal or
measured dissolved concentration of the alcohol in the test medium and
are identified as EC50 or LC50 values. However
there are also instances where the reported effect concentration
exceeded the solubility of the LCAA. These instances are distinguished
in the results tables either by the result being reported as an LL50
or EL50, implying that the test medium was a water
accommodated fraction (WAF), or by a note indicating that the test
substance loading exceeded the solubility of the LCAA. In the latter
case it has had to be assumed (because it is not apparent from the
test report) that undissolved LCAA may have been present in the test
medium and that there was the potential for physical (rather than
toxicity) effects to occur.
For studies using multi-constituent substances it is possible to
interpret the results on the basis of measured dissolved
concentrations of the LCAA constituents but they cannot be directly
related to the concentration of the multi-constituent substance
itself. This is because the test medium does not contain dissolved
concentrations of the constituents in the same ratio as present in the
substance itself. The toxicity data for mixed carbon chain length
LCAAs are therefore also expressed using different conventions. Where
the effect concentrations occurred at concentrations below the
solubility limit of a multi-constituent substance they are reported as
nominal or measured concentrations and are again identified as EC50
or LC50 values. In cases where the test media were
WAFs, or where the loading of a multi-constituent substance exceeded
the solubility of one or more of its constituents, the result is
reported either as an LL50 or EL50, denoting
that the test medium was a Water Accommodated Fraction (WAF), or by a
note indicating that the test substance loading exceeded the
solubility limit of the multi-constituent substance. Once again in the
latter case it has had to be assumed (because it is not apparent from
the test report) that undissolved LCAA may have been present in the
test medium and that there was the potential for physical (rather than
toxicity) effects to occur.
In Section 4 it was highlighted that biodegradation is likely to be a
significant loss mechanism from aquatic media for the LCAAs under
review. If loss of test substance from aquatic test media is
significant it will undermine the results of tests where analysis of
exposure was not performed. For example, exposure concentrations of
1-octanol (No. 111-87-5) in a 7-day test with the fathead minnow (Pimephales
promelas) declined by >90% in the unspecified period between media
renewals (Pickering et al., 1996). However the NOEC has been
expressed relative to nominal concentrations and must represent a
significant overestimate of the true value and therefore an
underestimate of the true toxicity. Similarly, the exposure
concentration of the same substance that corresponded to the NOEC
determined in a 21-day semi-static long-term test with Daphnia magna,
declined by >35% over the 3-4 day period between media renewals (Kuhn et
al., 1989). This suggests that exposure concentrations, expressed
as nominal values, would have significantly overestimated the actual
concentrations. The above examples highlight that test results
expressed only in terms of nominal concentrations must be treated with
considerable caution and may underestimate the toxicity of the
Trends in results, described in this section, are supported by
reliable measured data for branched LCAAs which are members of the Oxo
Alcohols Category. For full details please refer to the Oxo alcohols
SIAR and SIDS dossiers.
Where there were no available data for a linear LCAA the data has been
read-across (see CSR section 1.4) from reliable data for the closest
linear alcohols with a smaller carbon chain length.
For multi-constituent substances lacking measured short-term toxicity
data, the data has been read-across from the major constituent linear
LCAAs in cases where these formed >90% of the multi-constituent
substance. This approach is deemed valid because it is considered very
unlikely that the minor constituents present at <10% will contribute
significantly to short-term effects. This approach has not been
adopted for long-term toxicity data because here the potential for the
minor constituents to contribute to effects is much greater.
In the absence of suitable read-across data for linear and
multi-constituent LCAAs, validated QSAR methods have also been
developed to fill data gaps for short-term toxicity to fish and
invertebrates. QSARs for linear alcohols have also been developed to
fill data gaps for long-term toxicity to invertebrates.
Kuhn, R., Pattard, M., Pernak, K., and Winter, A. (1989). Results of
the harmful effects of water pollutants to Daphnia magna in the
21 day reproduction test. Wat. Res. 23(4): 501-510.
Pickering, Q.H., Lazorchak, J.M., and Winks, K.L. (1996). Subchronic
sensitivity of one-, four-, and seven-day-old fathead minnow (Pimephales
promelas) larvae to five toxicants. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 15(3):
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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