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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Description of key information

LC50 (96h) >0.042 mg/L (non-toxic at the limit of solubilty) (QSAR) rel. 2
LC50 (96 h) >1000 mg/l (non-toxic at the limit of solubilty) (read across from C16-18 unsaturated) rel. 4

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

A 96 h LC50 value of >100 mg/L has been calculated for the effects of the test substance on Oncorhynchus mykiss using a validated QSAR. This result signifies that the test substance is not expected to be toxic at the limit of solubility, i.e. the LC50 is >0.042 mg/L.

Additionally a 96h LC50 value of >1000 mg/L has been read-across from a supporting substance C16-18 and C18 Unsaturated (CAS 68002-94-8). The study is reliability 4 since only a summary report was available for review. However it does support the view that the C18 unsaturated is non-toxic at the LoS. It is possible to read-across from CAS 68002 -94 -8 to CAS 143 -28 -2 since these two substances are closely related. CAS 68002 -94 -8 is a mixture of C16 -18 and C18 unsaturated. The physicochemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological properties and behaviour do not differ significantly between the two substances. It is therefore possible to read-across between the two substances.

Discussion of trends in the Category of C6-24 linear and essentially-linear aliphatic alcohols:

Linear LCAAs

The data summarised in Table 7.1 show that the toxicity of the single carbon number chain length LCAAs increases from an LC50 of 97 mg/L for C6 to 1.0 mg/L for C12. At higher carbon number chain lengths there is an absence of short-term toxicity (LC50 values are reported as being greater than the highest test concentration or higher than the water solubility of the test substance) and this is explained by the water solubility of an LCAA limiting its bioavailability, such that a toxic concentration for short-term exposure is not achieved.

The results of a 7-day, semi-static toxicity test with 1-octanol using Pimephales promelas larvae aged 1, 4 and 7 days at the start of the study have also been reported by (Pickering et al., 1996) but are not included in the table. NOECs based on nominal concentrations were 1.5-11.9 mg/L for survival. Measured concentrations in the test were reduced to non-detectable levels in most test vessels in the old media. The poor maintenance of exposure concentrations means that the reported NOEC values are almost certainly underestimates of the true toxicity of the substance. The results of this test are also discussed later with respect to long-term toxicity.

Multi-constituent LCAAs

The data for multi-constituent substances of different carbon chain length LCAAs (commercial products) are shown in Table 7.2. The results show that substances containing LCAAs with carbon numbers in the ranges of C8-10 and C6-12 exert short-term toxic effects at concentrations of between 0.7 and 10 mg/L. At these concentrations all the constituents are likely to have been fully dissolved.

In contrast, multi-constituent substances - Alcohols, C12-13; Alcohols, C12-13-branched and linear and Alcohols, C12-15-branched and linear - exhibited effects at loading rates where not all constituents were fully dissolved. Under such circumstances the presence of retained undissolved test material, such as occurred in the Shell Toxicology Laboratory (1978a) test, opens up the possibility for physical fouling of the test organism and this needs to be kept in mind when interpreting the result. The multi-constituent substances containing LCAAs with carbon chain length C12 and above did not exhibit short-term toxicity effects at loading rates where the solubility of the constituent LCAAs was exceeded.

The data for nonanol, branched and linear, decanol branched and linear, decanol branched and undecanol branched alcohols, have been read-across from their linear alcohols counterparts (C9, C10 and C11) since they are essentially linear alcohols.

Alcohols, C14-15 ecotoxicity assessment is based on weight of evidence from two studies; Bridie et al. 1973 and Shell Toxicology Lab (1978). Both studies report the LC50 to be above the limit of solubility. The Bridieet al. study tested the toxicity of the substance via the WAF preparation method (the preferred method of testing with poorly soluble mixtures) however it does not report complete information on the study methods and conditions. The Shell Toxicology Lab (1978) did not utilise WAF methods but it is reported more comprehensively.

The results for both single carbon number LCAAs and the multi-constituent substances indicate that, for fish, there is a short-term toxicity cut-off for LCAAs with carbon numbers >C14.

The lowest reliable LC50 values determined in tests with single carbon chain length LCAAs are shown in the following table. 


Table 7.1: Key fish short-term toxicity studies on single carbon chain length linear LCAAs.

CAS

Chemical Name

Comments

Water solubility (mg/L)

Species

Method/ Guideline

Exposure regime

Endpoint

Value (mg/L)1,2

Reliability code

Reference

111-27-3

1-Hexanol

 

5900 at 20°C

promelas

US EPA 1975

Flow-through

96 h LC50

97 (m)

2

Veith, Call and Brooke, 1983a,b

111-70-6

1-Heptanol

Supporting

1300 at 20°C

Pimephales promelas

ASTM 1980

Flow-through

96 h LC50

38 (m)

2

Broderius and Kahl, 1985

111-87-5

1-Octanol

 

550 at 25°C 

Pimephales promelas

ASTM 1980

Flow-through

96 h LC50

13 (m)

2

Veith, Call and Brooke, 1983a,b; Brookeet al., 1984; Broderius and Kahl, 1985

143-08-8

1-Nonanol

 

130 at 20 °C

Pimephales promelas

ASTM 1980

Flow-through

96 h LC50

5.5 (m)

2

Broderius and Kahl, 1985

112-30-1

1-Decanol

 

40

Danio rerio(embryo)

OECD TG 236

Flow-through

120 h LC50

3.4 (m)

1

Wildlife International, 2015b

112-30-1

1-Decanol

 

40

Pimephales promelas

US EPA 1975

Flow-through

96 h LC50

2.3 (m)

2

Veith, Call and Brooke, 1983a,b; Brookeet al., 1984

112-42-5

1-Undecanol

 

8.0 at 20°C

Pimephales promelas

US EPA 1975

Flow-through

96 h LC50

1.0 (m)

2

Veith, Call and Brooke, 1983a,b

112-53-8

1-Dodecanol

 

1.9 at 20°C

Pimephales promelas

US EPA 1975

Flow-through

96 h LC50

1.0 (m)

2

Veith, Call and Brooke, 1983a,b

112-70-9

1-Tridecanol

Supporting

0.38 at 20°C

Pimephales promelas

US EPA 1975

Flow-through

96 h LC50

>0.33 (m)

2

Veith, Call and Brooke, 1983a,b

112-72-1

1-Tetradecanol

 

0.19 at 25°C

Salmo gairdneri i3

OECD 203

Semi-static

96 h LC50

>1 (n) (>LoS)

2

Wetton, 1996b

36653-82-4

1-Hexadecanol

 

0.013 at 25°C

Salmo gairdneri3

OECD 203

Semi-static

96 h LC50

>0.4 (n) (>LoS)

2

Wetton, 1996c

112-92-5

1-Octadecanol

 

0.0011 at 25°C

Salmo gairdneri3

OECD 203

Semi-static

96 h LC50

>0.4 (n) (>LoS)

2

Wetton, 1996d

661-19-8

1-Docosanol

 

approx. 0.001 (estimate)

Oncorhynchus mykiss

OECD 203

Semi-static

96 h LC50

>1000 (n)
(>LoS)

2

Wetton, 2000

Notes:

1 >LoS: concentration/Loading rate greater than the limit of water solubility

2 (n) based on nominal concentrations, (m) based on measured concentrations.

3 Now known as Oncorhynchus mykiss. The names used in the study reports are given here.

 

The lowest reliable LC50 values determined in tests with multiconstituent carbon chain length LCAAs are shown in the following table.

 Table 7.2: Fish short-term toxicity studies on mixed carbon chain length LCAAs.

CAS #

Chemical name

Comments1

Water solubility (mg/L)

Species

Method/ Guideline2

Exposure regime

Endpoint

Value (mg/L)3

Reliability code

Reference

n/a

Alcohols, C7-9

 

510 at a loading rate of 1000 mg/L (estimated)

I. idus4

Not specified

Static

96 h LC50

0.7-0.8 (n)

2

Reiff, 1978

67762-41-8

Alcohols, C8-10

Type C

SUPPORTING

2.4 at 25°C

Salmo gairdneri4andLepomis macrochirus

EPA 1975

Static

96 h LC50

6.5-10 (n)

2

EG&G Bionomics, 1975

n/a

Alcohols, C9-11- branched and linear

 Also valid for Alcohols, C9-11 CAS 66455-17-2

44 at a loading rate of 1000 mg/L. (estimated)

S. gairdneri4

Not specified

Static

96 h LC50

6.3-10 (n)

2

Shell Toxicology Laboratory, 1979

n/a

Alcohols, C9-11- branched and linear

 Also valid for Alcohols, C9-11 CAS 66455-17-2

44 at a loading rate of 1000 mg/L. (estimated)

Scopthalmus maximus(marine species)

Not specified

Semi-static

96 h LC50

5.8 (n)

2

Huntingdon Life Sciences Ltd., 1991d

68515-81-1

Nonanol, branched and linear

 

121 (estimated)

Pimephales promelas

ASTM 1980

Flow-through

96 h LC50

5.5 (m)

2

Broderius and Kahl, 1985

(r-a from C9)

90342-32-8

Decanol, branched and linear

 

26.17 at 20°C

P. promelas

US EPA 1975

Flow-through

96 h LC50

2.3 (m)

2

Veith, Call and Brooke, 1983a,b; Brookeet al., 1984

(r-a from C10)

128973-77-3

Undecanol, branched and linear

 

Reaction mass of 2-methyldecan-1-ol and 2-propyloctan-1-ol and 2-ethylnonan-1-ol and 2-butylheptan-1-ol

 

6.3 at 25°C

P. promelas

US EPA 1975

Flow-through

96 h LC50

1.0 (m)

2

Veith, Call and Brooke, 1983a,b

(r-a from C11)

75782-87-5

Alcohols, C12-13

 

2.4 at 25oC

S. gairdneri4

Not specified

Static

96 h LC50

4.0-10 (>LoS)

2

Shell Toxicology Laboratory, 1978a

75782-87-5

Alcohols, C12-13

 

2.4 at 25oC

S. maximus(marine species)

Not specified

Semi-static

96 h LC50

10 (n) (>LoS)

2

Huntingdon Life Sciences Ltd., 1991c

740817-83-8

Alcohols, C12-13-branched and linear

 

2.9-3.1 at 20°C

Brachydanio rerio

OECD 203 WAF

Semi-static

96-hr LL50

15 (n) (>LoS)

1

TNO, 2000a

90604-40-3

Alcohols, C12-15-branched and linear

 

0.80 at 20°C

Oncorhynchus mykiss

OECD 203 WAF

Semi-Static

96 h LL50

100-300 (n) (>LoS)

1

Eadsforth, Palmer and Cann, 2000

68855-56-1

Alcohols, C 12-16

Type B

0.80 at 20°C

O. mykiss

Not specified

Static

96 h LC50

57 (n) (>LoS)

2

Huntingdon Life Sciences 1996i

SUPPORTING

80206-82-2

Alcohols, C 12-14

not possible to determine compositional type

approx. 4 predicted at 1000 mg/L loading rate

L. idus

OECD 203

Static

48 h LC50

>5000 (n) (>LoS)

2

Henkel, 1999m

SUPPORTING

75782-87-5

Alcohols, C14-15

 

0.7 at 20°C and 0.15 at a loading rate of 1000 mg/L. (estimated)

S. gairdneri4

Not specified

Static

96 h LC50

>500 (n) (>LoS)

2

Shell Toxicology Lab 1978b

Carassius auratus

ASTM D 1345

Static

96 h LL50

>0.7 (n)

2

Bridieet al., 1973

(>LoS)

68002-94-8

Alcohols, C 16-18 and 18 Unsaturated 

SUPPORTING

0.0404 predicted at 1000 mg/L loading rate

L. idus

OECD 203

Static

48 h LC50

>10000 (>LoS)

2

Henkel, 1999o

Notes:

1 Compositional Types are described in section 1.4.7 of the category report.

2 WAF denotes test medium was a water-accommodated fraction.

3 >LoS: LC50 observed was greater than the limit of solubility of at least some constituents of the substance. (n) based on nominal concentrations, (m) based on measured concentrations.

4 Now known as Oncorhynchus mykiss. The names used in the study reports are given here.